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Table 1 Baseline characteristics overall and stratified by 6-year vital status in community-acquired pneumonia

From: Time-dependent association of glucocorticoids with adverse outcome in community-acquired pneumonia: a 6-year prospective cohort study

   6-Year vital status
Characteristics Entire cohort (n = 285) Survivors (n = 150) Nonsurvivors (n = 135) p Value
Demographic characteristics
 Age, years 71 [57–81] 64 [45–75] 79 [70–84] <0.001
 Male sex 172 (60.4%) 80 (53.3%) 92 (68.1%) 0.011
CAP characteristics
 PSI class
  I 32 (11.2%) 30 (20.0%) 2 (1.5%) <0.001
  II 55 (19.3%) 44 (29.3%) 11 (8.1%) <0.001
  III 52 (18.2%) 29 (19.3%) 23 (17.0%) 0.62
  IV 104 (36.5%) 38 (25.3%) 66 (48.9%) <0.001
  V 42 (14.7%) 9 (6.0%) 33 (24.4%) <0.001
 CURB-65 score
  0 63 (22.1%) 51 (34.0%) 12 (8.9%) <0.001
  I 67 (23.5%) 41 (27.3%) 26 (19.3%) 0.11
  II 82 (28.8%) 33 (22.0%) 49 (36.3%) 0.008
  III 57 (20.0%) 21 (14.0%) 36 (26.7%) 0.008
  IV/V 16 (5.6%) 4 (2.7%) 12 (8.9%) 0.023
Comorbiditiesa
 Coronary heart disease 59 (20.7%) 16 (10.7%) 43 (31.9%) <0.001
 Congestive heart failure 44 (15.4%) 7 (4.7%) 37 (27.4%) <0.001
 Cerebrovascular insult 28 (9.8%) 9 (6.0%) 19 (14.1%) 0.022
 PAOD 17 (6.0%) 7 (4.7%) 10 (7.4%) 0.33
 Chronic renal failure 67 (23.5%) 19 (12.7%) 48 (35.6%) <0.001
 Diabetes mellitus 55 (19.3%) 22 (14.7%) 33 (24.4%) 0.037
 Neoplastic disease 38 (13.3%) 12 (8.0%) 26 (19.3%) 0.005
Clinical history
 Fever 185 (65.1%) 113 (75.3%) 72 (53.7%) <0.001
 Chills 87 (34.0%) 58 (42.0%) 29 (24.6%) 0.003
 Glucocorticoid pretreatment 22 (7.9%) 5 (3.4%) 17 (12.9%) 0.003
Clinical findings
 Confusion 20 (7.9%) 4 (2.9%) 16 (13.7%) 0.002
 Body temperature, °C 38 [37.2–38.8] 38.2 [37.4–39] 37.8 [37–38.8] 0.085
 Breath rate, breaths/minute 20 [16–25] 20 [16–24] 24 [18–28] 0.002
 Heart rate, beats/minute 94 [82–105] 92.5 [83.5–108] 95 [80–104] 0.43
 SBP, mmHg 130 [117–148] 130 [120–148] 130 [110–149] 0.17
 Arterial pH 7.46 [7.42–7.49] 7.46 [7.43–7.50] 7.45 [7.41–7.49] 0.013
 SIRS criteria 188 (66.0%) 93 (62.0%) 95 (70.4%) 0.14
Outcome parameters
 ICU admission 21 (7.4%) 9 (6.0%) 12 (8.9%) 0.35
 Mechanical ventilation 7 (2.5%) 2 (1.3%) 5 (3.7%) 0.20
 Septic shock 6 (2.1%) 1 (0.7%) 5 (3.7%) 0.075
 Length of stay, days 8 [5–12] 7 [4–10] 9 [6–13] <0.001
Admission laboratory findings
 CRP, mg/L 132 [65–252] 147 [91–265] 111 [55–249] 0.037
 PCT, μg/L 0.48 [0.16–3.20] 0.64 [0.16–3.72] 0.43 [0.16–1.97] 0.37
 Cortisol, nmol/L 402 [203.8–723.2] 431 [189.1–759.2] 399 [213.1–710.3] 0.46
 11-Deoxycortisol, nmol/L 0.6 [0.17–2.23] 0.4 [0.16–2.13] 0.8 [0.18–2.25] 0.49
 Cortisone, nmol/L 32.5 [18.42–46.72] 33.2 [19.28–48.49] 32.4 [17.68–44.41] 0.29
 Corticosterone, nmol/L 8.7 [2.81–25.02] 8.9 [2.73–28.67] 8.4 [3.13–22.95] 0.85
  1. Abbreviations: CAP Community-acquired pneumonia, CRP C-reactive protein, CURB-65 Confusion of new onset, blood urea nitrogen >7 mmol/L, respiratory rate ≥30 breaths per minute, systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≤60, and age ≥65 years, PAOD Peripheral arterial occlusive disease, PCT Procalcitonin, PSI Pneumonia severity index, SBP Systolic blood pressure, SIRS Systemic inflammatory response syndrome, ICU Intensive care unit
  2. Data are presented as median [IQR] or number (percent); p < 0.05 is considered statistically significant. Bold values indicate statistical significance
  3. aComorbidities were identified on the basis of medical records or patient report