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Table 2 Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in patients with co‐existing cardiovascular disease in critical care blood transfusion threshold trials. Diagnosis made by Investigator (I) or Clinician (C)

From: Anemia and blood transfusion in the critically ill patient with cardiovascular disease

Author, year Population Blinded y/n Diagnosis of ACS Incidence of new ACS
de Almeida, 2015 [27] Major abdominal cancer surgery Y (I) Clinical symptoms suggesting myocardial ischemia with ≥ 1 of the following:
increase/decrease in cTnI (≥1 value > 99th centile upper reference limit);
EKG changes: new Q waves, ST elevation, new LBBB;
Image‐based evidence of new loss of viable myocardium
R: 0/22
L: 0/12
Hebert, 1999 [9] General ICU ? (I) Unclear *
Holst, 2014 [11] Septic shock Y (I) Symptoms, EKG signs, or elevated biomarker levels resulting in an intervention R: 6/75
L: 2/66
Walsh, 2013 [14] Older, mechanically ventilated N (C) Troponin rise, new EKG change R: 1/17
L: 0/15
  1. *All complications, including shock, myocardial infarction, unstable angina and cardiac arrest, with the exception of acute pulmonary edema (9 vs. 18%; p < 0.01), were comparable in both groups (p > 0.05). LBBB left bundle branch block, R restrictive, L liberal, Tn troponin, EKG electrocardiogram