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Table 3 Detective characteristics of the three biomarkers and their combinations for total acute kidney injury and severe acute kidney injury

From: Evaluation of clinically available renal biomarkers in critically ill adults: a prospective multicenter observational study

Logistic regression model AUC-ROCa Cutoffb Sensitivity Specificity (+) LR (−) LR PPV NPV
Total AKI (n = 326)
 Univariate models
  sCysC 0.738 (0.703–0.772) 1.26 mg/L 0.44 0.95 7.92 0.59 0.77 0.80
  uNAG 0.650 (0.614–0.686) 27.14 U/g Cre 0.64 0.60 1.59 0.60 0.41 0.80
  uACR 0.683 (0.648–0.718) 61.14 mg/g Cre 0.54 0.76 2.20 0.61 0.49 0.79
 Multivariate models
  sCysC + uNAG 0.756 (0.723–0.789)c 0.43d 0.49 0.91 5.69 0.56 0.71 0.81
  uNAG + uACR 0.661 (0.626–0.697)e 0.27d 0.64 0.62 1.68 0.58 0.42 0.80
  sCysC + uACR 0.740 (0.706–0.774)f 0.45d 0.45 0.94 7.66 0.59 0.77 0.80
Severe AKI (n = 102)
 Univariate models
  sCysC 0.839 (0.798–0.880) 1.25 mg/L 0.67 0.87 5.28 0.38 0.35 0.96
  uNAG 0.706 (0.651–0.761) 32.80 U/g Cre 0.72 0.65 2.03 0.44 0.17 0.96
  uACR 0.771 (0.726–0.817) 71.97 mg/g Cre 0.72 0.74 2.77 0.38 0.22 0.96
 Multivariate models
  sCysC + uNAG 0.863 (0.827–0.900)c 0.09d 0.76 0.83 4.39 0.28 0.31 0.97
  uNAG + uACR 0.715 (0.661–0.768)g 0.08d 0.74 0.64 2.06 0.41 0.18 0.96
  sCysC + uACR 0.838 (0.797–0.879)f 0.08d 0.78 0.75 3.16 0.29 0.25 0.97
  1. Abbreviations: (+) LR Positive likelihood ratio, (−) LR negative likelihood ratio, PPV Positive predictive value, NPV Negative predictive value, sCysC Serum cystatin C, uNAG Urinary N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase, Cre Creatinine concentration, uACR Urinary albumin/creatinine ratio
  2. a Values are presented as AUC-ROC (95% CI)
  3. b Ideal cutoff value according to Youden’s index
  4. c P < 0.05 vs. sCysC, uNAG, uACR, uNAG + uACR, and sCysC + uACR
  5. d Cutoff points of the biomarker panels were the predicted probabilities generated from the multiple logistic regression model
  6. e P < 0.05 vs. sCysC, uNAG, sCysC + uACR, and sCysC + uNAG
  7. f P < 0.05 vs. uNAG, uACR, uNAG + uACR, and sCysC + uNAG
  8. g P < 0.05 vs. sCysC, uNAG, uACR, sCysC + uACR, and sCysC + uNAG