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Table 1 Baseline characteristics and outcomes

From: Evaluation of clinically available renal biomarkers in critically ill adults: a prospective multicenter observational study

Characteristics Non-AKI (n = 758) AKI (n = 326) P value
Demographic variables
 Age, years 52.0 (41.0–62.0) 62.1 (47.4–73.0) <0.001
 Male sex, n (%) 393 (51.8) 197 (60.4) 0.009
 BMI, kg/m2 22.2 (21.6–23.1) 22.4 (21.8–23.3) 0.324
Preexisting clinical conditions
 Hypertension, n (%) 117 (15.4) 115 (35.3) <0.001
 DM, n (%) 42 (5.5) 51 (15.6) <0.001
 CKD, n (%) 16 (2.1) 44 (13.5) <0.001
 Chronic liver disease, n (%) 10 (1.3) 19 (5.8) <0.001
 Stroke, n (%) 80 (10.6) 73 (22.4) <0.001
 COPD, n (%) 16 (2.1) 14 (4.3) 0.044
 CAD, n (%) 20 (2.6) 32 (9.8) <0.001
 HF, n (%) 13 (1.7) 30 (9.2) <0.001
 Cancer, n (%) 79 (10.4) 52 (16.0) 0.01
 Thyroid disease, n (%) 23 (3.0) 14 (4.3) 0.295
Sepsis, n (%) 149 (19.7) 179 (54.9) <0.001
Admission type, n (%)    <0.001
 Elective surgical, n (%) 555 (73.2) 110 (33.7)  
 Emergency surgical, n (%) 88 (11.6) 68 (20.9)  
 Medical, n (%) 115 (15.2) 148 (45.4)  
Baseline serum creatinine, mg/dl 0.69 (0.58–0.83) 0.74 (0.57–0.95) 0.018
Baseline eGFR, ml/minute/1.73 m2 110.20 (94.40–133.60) 105.60 (77.15–141.70) 0.033
Serum creatinine at admission, mg/dl 0.77 (0.64–0.92) 1.07 (0.82–1.45) <0.001
APACHE II score 10 (8–14) 17 (11–26) <0.001
UP, ml/kg/h 1.99 (1.48–2.62) 1.76 (1.08–2.46) <0.001
Outcomes
 Length of ICU stay, days 3 (2–4) 5 (3–10) <0.001
 Length of hospital stay, days 12 (8–16) 14 (9–23) <0.001
 RRT during ICU stay, n (%) 4 (0.5) 20 (6.1) <0.001
 ICU mortality, n (%) 20 (2.6) 46 (14.1) <0.001
 In-hospital mortality, n (%) 28 (3.7) 51 (15.6) <0.001
  1. Abbreviations: AKI Acute kidney injury; BMI Body mass index; DM Diabetes mellitus; CAD, Coronary artery disease; COPD, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; HF, Heart failure; CKD, Chronic kidney disease, defined as baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/minute/1.73 m2; eGFR, Estimated glomerular filtration rate; APACHE, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation; UP, Urine production first 24 h after admission; ICU, Intensive care unit; RRT, Renal replacement therapy
  2. The nonnormally distributed continuous variables are expressed as median (25th percentile to 75th percentile IQR). Categorical variables are expressed as n (%)