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Table 3 Associations of HDL-C and LDL-C with sepsis rates

From: Cholesterol levels and long-term rates of community-acquired sepsis

  Include HDL-C + LDL-C in same model
Variable Unadjusted Add demographics + health behaviors + chronic medical conditions Add biomarkers Add functional status measures HDL-C and LDL-C quartiles HDL-C and LDL-C clinical categories HDL-C and LDL-C SD HDL-C and LDL-C percent of total cholesterol
HDL-C quartile
 Q1 (5–40 mg/dl) 1.71 (1.48–1.98) 1.22 (1.03–1.44) 1.08 (0.91–1.27) 1.07 (0.90–1.26) 1.08 (0.91–1.28)    
 Q2 (41–49 mg/dl) 1.37 (1.17–1.60) 1.11 (0.94–1.32) 1.05 (0.89–1.24) 1.05 (0.89–1.23) 1.07 (0.91–1.26)    
 Q3 (50–61 mg/dl) 1.18 (1.01–1.39) 1.07 (0.91–1.25) 1.04 (0.88–1.22) 1.04 (0.88–1.22) 1.06 (0.90–1.24)    
 Q4 (62–199 mg/dl) Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference    
Trend p value <0.001 0.02 0.40 0.46 0.39    
HDL-C clinical category
 <40 mg/dl 1.69 (1.47–1.95) 1.20 (1.02–1.41) 1.05 (0.89–1.24) 1.05 (0.89–1.23)   1.05 (0.89–1.24)   
 40–59 mg/dl 1.25 (1.10–1.43) 1.07 (0.93–1.23) 1.01 (0.88–1.16) 1.01 (0.88–1.16)   1.03 (0.82–1.29)   
 ≥60 mg/dl Reference Reference Reference Reference   Reference   
HDL-C (per SD) (mg/dl) 0.83 (0.79–0.88) 0.96 (0.90–1.02) 1.01 (0.95–1.08) 1.01 (0.95–1.08)    1.01 (0.95–1.07)  
HDL-C % of total cholesterol (per SD) 0.95 (0.91–1.01) 1.01 (0.96–1.07) 1.06 (1.01–1.13) 1.06 (1.01–1.13)     1.01 (0.94–1.09)
LDL-C quartile
 Q1 (3–89 mg/dl) 1.70 (1.47–1.97) 1.29 (1.10–1.52) 1.31 (1.12–1.54) 1.30 (1.11–1.53) 1.31 (1.11–1.54)    
 Q2 (90–111 mg/dl) 1.42 (1.21–1.66) 1.25 (1.06–1.47) 1.26 (1.07–1.48) 1.25 (1.06–1.48) 1.26 (1.06–1.48)    
 Q3 (112–135 mg/dl) 1.13 (0.97–1.33) 1.07 (0.91–1.25) 1.08 (0.91–1.26) 1.07 (0.91–1.26) 1.08 (0.91–1.27)    
 Q4 (136–388 mg/dl) Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference    
Trend p value <0.001 0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001    
LDL-C clinical category
 <130 mg/dl 1.49 (1.23–1.81) 1.23 (1.01–1.51) 1.27 (1.04–1.55) 1.26 (1.03–1.54)   1.26 (1.03–1.55)   
 130–159 mg/dl 1.02 (0.82–1.28) 1.00 (0.80–1.26) 1.03 (0.82–1.29) 1.03 (0.82–1.29)   1.03 (0.82–1.29)   
 ≥160 mg/dl Reference Reference Reference Reference   Reference   
LDL-C (per SD) (mg/dl) 0.81 (0.76–0.85) 0.90 (0.85–0.96) 0.90 (0.85–0.95) 0.90 (0.85–0.96)    0.90 (0.85–0.96)  
LDL-C % of total cholesterol (per SD) 0.86 (0.81–0.90) 0.92 (0.87–0.97) 0.92 (0.87–0.97) 0.92 (0.87–0.97)     0.93 (0.86–0.99)
  1. Data presented as hazard ratio (95% confidence interval). Total of 29,690 REGARDS participants. Hazard ratios estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression and represent pooled estimates from multiple imputation
  2. p values represent tests for linear trends across quartiles
  3. Demographics = age, gender, race, region, income, and education; health behaviors = smoking status and alcohol use; chronic medical conditions = cancer, chronic lung disease, coronary artery disease, diabetes, hypertension, obesity, stroke, statin use, and Morisky medication adherence index; biomarkers = hs-CRP, Cystatin C, ACR, and eGFR; functional status measures = weakness, exhaustion, and low physical activity
  4. LDL-C low-density lipoprotein, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein, SD standard deviation, hs-CRP high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, ACR albumin–creatinine ratio, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate