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Table 1 Baseline participant characteristics by HDL-C and LDL-C quartile

From: Cholesterol levels and long-term rates of community-acquired sepsis

Characteristic HDL-C quartile LDL-C quartile
Q1, 5–40 mg/dl Q2, 41–49 mg/dl Q3, 50–61 mg/dl Q4, 62–199 mg/dl Q1, 3–89 mg/dl Q2, 90–111 mg/dl Q3, 112–135 mg/dl Q4, 136–388 mg/dl
Number of participants 7305 7064 7162 6749 6984 7088 6915 6896
Demographics
Age (years), mean (SD) 64.8 (9.3) 64.8 (9.5) 64.8 (9.3) 65.1 (9.5) 66.3 (9.5) 65.4 (9.5) 64.5 (9.4) 63.4 (9.0)
Age group (%)
 45–49 5.0 5.5 4.8 4.6 4.4 4.7 5.4 5.4
 50–59 26.0 25.5 26.5 26.8 20.8 24.7 27.9 31.3
 60–69 38.2 38.3 37.8 36.3 37.0 37.7 37.1 38.5
 70–79 24.3 23.4 24.2 24.6 28.9 25.1 23.0 19.8
 ≥80 6.6 7.3 6.6 7.7 8.8 7.9 6.7 5.0
Gender (%)
 Male 71.3 51.6 35.3 21.7 51.1 47.1 43.6 38.9
 Female 28.7 48.4 64.7 78.3 48.9 52.9 56.4 61.1
Race (%)
 White 67.6 58.8 55.7 55.5 62.3 61.3 58.6 54.6
 Black 32.4 41.3 44.3 44.5 37.7 38.7 41.4 45.5
Education (%)
 Less than high school 13.1 12.8 12.4 10.9 13.5 11.8 11.8 12.1
 High school graduate 25.8 26.4 26.4 24.6 26.1 25.4 24.4 27.3
 Some college 27.2 26.6 26.9 26.5 26.0 26.7 27.8 26.7
 College or higher 34.0 34.2 34.3 38.1 34.5 36.2 36.1 33.9
 Missing (N) 7 4 3 7 7 4 3 7
Income (%)
  < $20,000 16.6 18.3 18.0 17.7 18.2 16.9 16.5 18.7
 $20,000–34,000 24.0 24.0 24.9 23.5 25.2 24.0 22.9 24.4
 $35,000–74,000 32.1 30.8 29.1 28.0 29.8 30.8 30.7 29.1
  ≥ $75,000 16.6 15.5 15.5 16.4 15.0 16.2 17.3 15.6
 Refused 10.7 11.4 12.5 14.4 11.9 12.1 12.6 12.2
Geographic region (%)
 Stroke buckle 20.7 20.6 21.7 20.9 22.4 20.7 20.4 20.2
 Stroke belt 37.0 35.7 33.7 32.6 35.1 35.1 33.7 34.9
 Nonbelt/buckle 42.3 43.7 44.7 46.5 42.5 44.2 46.0 44.9
Health behaviors
 Smoking status (%)
  Current 17.1 15.1 13.2 12.1 14.1 13.1 14.2 15.8
  Past 44.9 41.1 38.3 37.1 44.4 40.9 39.1 36.9
  Never 38.1 43.9 48.5 50.9 41.5 46.0 46.7 47.2
  Missing (N) 17 29 31 28 23 24 31 25
 Alcohol use (%)
  Heavy 1.8 3.1 4.0 7.5 4.0 4.4 3.9 3.7
  Moderate 31.8 32.5 33.5 36.7 32.3 35.0 34.8 32.0
  None 66.4 64.4 62.5 55.9 63.7 60.6 61.3 64.3
  Missing (N) 155 153 106 134 145 140 122 130
Chronic medical conditions
 Cancer (%) 10.3 8.5 8.0 8.0 10.2 9.3 8.0 7.2
 Chronic lung disease (%) 8.3 9.2 9.2 10.0 10.7 9.7 8.8 7.4
 Coronary artery disease (%) 25.3 19.2 15.1 11.5 28.7 18.7 12.9 10.7
 Diabetes (%) 30.3 25.4 19.0 14.2 33.5 22.9 17.0 14.8
 Hypertension (%) 63.5 60.8 58.0 53.7 67.0 60.2 55.9 52.3
 Obesity (%) 61.7 57.2 53.6 40.0 54.5 52.0 52.3 54.0
 Stroke (%) 7.6 7.0 5.7 4.4 8.5 6.3 5.0 4.9
 Statin use (%) 35.3 35.2 31.6 23.6 56.6 47.0 36.8 37.0
Biomarkers
 hs-CRP > 3.0 mg/dl 44.6 41.8 40.3 35.5 38.3 39.6 40.8 43.8
  Missing (N) 148 165 167 179 150 177 159 160
 Cystatin C > 1.12 mg/dl 34.1 26.7 21.6 17.3 32.1 25.7 22.2 19.7
  Missing (N) 183 187 208 212 189 199 196 191
 ACR > 30 μg/mg (%) 18.8 15.7 13.0 12.5 17.5 15.0 13.7 13.3
  Missing (N) 267 308 249 254 295 287 227 250
 eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 14.7 11.8 10.3 8.7 15.2 11.9 9.7 8.8
  Missing (N) 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1
Functional status
 Weakness (SF-12 PCS < 75) (%) 31.0 29.9 28.8 26.7 33.8 28.9 26.5 26.8
 Reported exhaustion (%) 15.7 13.9 13.4 11.7 14.8 14.1 12.4 13.0
 Low physical activity (%) 34.7 33.5 33.6 32.6 35.4 33.7 32.6 32.6
  1. Total of 29,690 participants. LDL-C measurement missing for 1807 participants. HDL-C measurement missing for 1410 participants
  2. All p < 0.05 based on Pearson chi-square tests of association
  3. LDL-C low-density lipoprotein, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein, SD standard deviation, hs-CRP high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, ACR albumin–creatinine ratio, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, SF-12 12-item short form survey, PCS physical composite score