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Table 3 Baseline characteristic in propensity score-matched patients with severe trauma*

From: Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta versus aortic cross clamping among patients with critical trauma: a nationwide cohort study in Japan

  REBOA (n = 152) ACC (n = 152) SD P value Missing
Age (years) 52.8 ± 21.0 54.8 ± 22.1 0.09 0.421 0
Gender (male) 111/152 (73%) 101/152(66%) 0.14 0.261 0
Mechanism of injury (blunt vs. penetrating) 142/152 (93%) 141/152(93%) 0.03 1.000 0
Cause of injury 0.726 0
 Accident 104 (68%) 109 (72%) 0.07   
 Suicide 28 (18%) 29 (19%) 0.02   
 Assault 6 (3.9%) 5 (3.3%) 0.04   
 Workplace injuries 14(92%) 9 (5.9%) 0.13   
 Other 0(0%) 0 (0%) 0.00   
Transport type 0.542 0
 Ambulance 124/152 (82%) 123/152(81%) 0.02   
 Ambulance with physician 6/152 (3.9%) 10/152 (6.6%) 0.12   
 Helicopter with physician 22/152 (15%) 19/152 (13%) 0.06   
 Other 0/152 (0%) 0/152(0%) 0.00   
Vital signs at emergency department  
 GCS value 8(10) 8(10) 0.02 0.909 0
 SBP 77.5 (64) 73.5 (64) 0.02 0.421 0
 HR 108.0 (39) 109.5(52) 0.05 0.687 0
 RR 25 (10) 24 (14) 0.08 0.499 0
RTS 4.8 ± 2.0 4.7 ± 2.1   0.631 0
ISS 34 (23) 36 (20) 0.11 0.341 0
TRISS (probability of survival) 0.45 ± 0.35 0.39 ± 0.31   0.115 0
Prehospital treatment  
 Airway protection maneuver 12/152 (7.9%) 11/152 (7.2%) 0.03 1.000 0
 Intubation 9/152 (5.9%) 13/152 (8.6%) 0.10 0.508 0
 Intravenous fluid 9/152 (5.9%) 14/152 (9.2%) 0.13 0.386 0
FAST 0.232 6
 Positive 91/148 (62%) 78/150(52%)    
 Negative 52/148 (35%) 64/150(43%)    
 Not conducted 5/148 (3.4%) 8/150 (5.3%)    
Blood transfusion 135/152 (89%) 121/152(80%)   0.04 0
AIS 0
 Head 3.8 ± 1.3 3.4 ± 1.1   0.047  
 Face 1.7 ± 0.8 1.3 ± 0.5   0.036  
 Neck 1.3 ± 0.6 1.3 ± 0.5   0.846  
 Thorax 3.8 ± 0.8 4.2 ± 0.8   <0.001  
 Abdomen and pelvis 3.5 ± 1.0 3.8 ± 1.4   0.112  
 Spine 2.6 ± 0.9 2.6 ± 1.0   0.812  
 Upper extremity 2.1 ± 0.7 2.1 ± 0.6   0.833  
 Lower extremity 3.6 ± 1.4 3.6 ± 1.3   0.904  
 Other 1.0 ± 0.0 1.3 ± 0.5   0.172  
Operation at initial evaluation  
 Craniotomy 3/152 (2.0%) 0/152(0%)   0.248 0
 Craterization 4/152 (2.6%) 1/152 (0.7%)   0.371 0
 Thoracotomy 20/152 (13%) 92/152(61%)   <0.001 0
 Laparotomy 79/152 (52%) 68/152(45%)   0.251 0
Angiography  
 Chest 2/152 (1.3%) 5/152 (3.3%)   0.448 0
 Abdomen 27/152 (18%) 10/152 (6.6%)   0.004 0
 Pelvis 33/152 (22%) 15/152 (9.9%)   0.007 0
TAE (all) 29/152 (19%) 11/152 (7.2%)   0.004 0
CPR
 ERT with CPR 20/152 (13%) 125/152 (82%)   <0.001 0
 Closed CPR 33/152 (22%) 53/152(35%)   0.015 0
  1. All categorical variables are shown as n (%); continuous variables are shown as mean ± standard deviation or median (interquartile)
  2. ACC aortic cross-clamping, AIS Abbreviated Injury Score, CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation, ERT Emergency resuscitative thoracotomy, FAST Focused assessment with sonography for trauma, GCS Glasgow Coma Scale, HR heart rate, ISS Injury Severity Score, REBOA resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta, RR Respiratory rate, RTS revised trauma score, SBP systolic blood pressure, SD standardized difference, TAE trans-catheter arterial embolization, TRISS trauma and injury severity score
  3. *The covariates used to estimate the propensity score were age, gender, mechanism of injury, cause of injury, transport type, prehospital treatment, vital signs at the emergency department, and ISS