Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristic of critical patients with trauma who had either REBOA or ACC

From: Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta versus aortic cross clamping among patients with critical trauma: a nationwide cohort study in Japan

  REBOA (n = 636) ACC (n = 267) P value Missing
Age (years) 52.5 ± 21.2 56.7 ± 21.1 0.007 0
Gender (male) 417/636 (66%) 194/267 (73%) 0.043 0
Onset year     0
 2004–2008 218/636 (34%) 70/267 (26%)   
 2009–2013 418/636 (66%) 197/267 (74%)   
Mechanism of injury (blunt vs. penetrating) 591/630 (94%) 247/265 (93%) 0.765 8
Cause of injury 0.754 31
 Accident 429/618 (69%) 187/254 (74%)   
 Suicide 127/618 (21%) 44/254 (17%)   
 Assault 20/618 (32%) 6/254 (2.4%)   
 Workplace injuries 39/618 (6.3%) 16/254 (6.3%)   
 Other 1/618 (0.2%) 1/254 (0.4%)   
Transport type 0.008 27
 Ambulance 514/617 (83%) 194/259(75%)   
 Ambulance with physician 26/617 (4.2%) 24/259 (9.3%)   
 Helicopter with physician 73/617 (12%) 40/259 (15%)   
 Other 4/617 (0.6%) 1/259 (0.4%)   
Vital signs at prehospital
 SBP 101 (42) 105 (40) 0.42 358
 HR 97 (37) 100 (43) 0.76 163
 RR 24 (10) 25 (10) 0.445 232
Vital signs at emergency department
 GCS value 10(12) 5(8) <0.001 21
 SBP 89 (46) 87 (45) <0.001 0
 HR 102 (36) 106 (52) 0.181 14
 RR 25 (10) 24 (15) <0.001 99
RTS 5.2 ± 2.0 4.2 ± 2.2 <0.001 107
AIS   0
 Head (n = 382) 3.6 ± 1.2 3.3 ± 1.1 0.101  
 Face (n = 167) 1.6 ± 0.7 1.8 ± 1.3 0.274  
 Neck (n = 14) 2.4 ± 1.3 1.5 ± 0.8 0.178  
 Thorax (n = 593) 3.8 ± 0.9 4.3 ± 1.1 <0.001  
 Abdomen and pelvis (n = 580) 3.6 ± 1.1 3.8 ± 1.5 0.143  
 Spine (n = 187) 2.5 ± 1.1 2.6 ± 0.9 0.959  
 Upper extremity (n = 209) 2.0 ± 0.6 2.1 ± 0.6 0.284  
 Lower extremity (n = 558) 3.7 ± 1.3 3.7 ± 1.2 0.702  
 Others (n = 39) 1.1 ± 0.4 1.2 ± 0.4 0.701  
ISS 34 (25) 34 (20) <0.001 0
TRISS (probability of survival) 0.43 ± 0.36 0.27 ± 0.30 <0.001 12
Prehospital treatment  
 Airway protection maneuver 53/636 (8.3%) 41/267 (15%) 0.003 0
 Intubation 44/636 (6.9%) 35/267 (13%) 0.004 0
 Intravenous fluid 55/636 (8.6%) 25/267 (9.3%) 0.703 0
FAST 0.013 29
 Positive 359/614 (59%) 133/260(51%)   
 Negative 233/614 (38%) 107/260 (41%)   
 Not conducted 22/614 (3.6%) 20/260 (7.7%)   
Blood transfusion 542/636 (85%) 197/267 (74%) <0.001 0
CPR     
 ERT with CPR 71/636 (11%) 216/267 (81%) <0.001 0
 Closed CPR 141/636 (22%) 92/267 (35%) <0.001 0
Operation at initial evaluation
 Craniotomy 19/636 (3.0%) 1/267 (0.4%) 0.012 0
 Craterization 17/636 (2.7%) 3/267 (1.2%) 0.215 0
 Thoracotomy 70/636 (11%) 160/267 (60%) <0.001 0
 Laparotomy 301/636 (47%) 99/267 (37%) 0.005 0
Angiography
 Chest 29/636 (4.6%) 7/267 (2.6%) 0.196 0
 Abdomen 156/636 (25%) 15/267 (5.6%) <0.001 0
 Pelvis 151/636 (24%) 22/267 (8.2%) <0.001 0
TAE (all) 153/636 (24%) 18/267 (6.7%) <0.001 0
  1. All categorical variables are shown as n (%); continuous variables are shown as mean ± standard deviation or median (interquartile)
  2. ACC aortic cross-clamping, AIS Abbreviated Injury Score, CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation, ERT Emergency resuscitative thoracotomy, FAST Focused assessment with sonography for trauma, GCS Glasgow Coma Scale, HR heart rate, ISS Injury Severity Score, REBOA resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta, RR Respiratory rate, RTS revised trauma score, SBP systolic blood pressure, TAE trans-catheter arterial embolization, TRISS trauma and injury severity score