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Fig. 1 | Critical Care

Fig. 1

From: Immunomodulation after ischemic stroke: potential mechanisms and implications for therapy

Fig. 1

In the ischemic core, energy failure induces local excitotoxicity and peri-infarct depolarization, which lead to cell death, mainly by necrosis. The necrotic cells release several endogenous damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs): glutamate (Glu), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which activate resident microglial cells and astrocytes to trigger downstream inflammatory signaling cascades. These mediators trigger the recruitment of peripheral immune cells in an attempt to initiate clearance of cell debris and healing in the brain. This process will induce further neuronal and glial cell death

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