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Table 4 Subgroup and sensitivity analyses for hospital mortality

From: Association between time of discharge from ICU and hospital mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Analysis Studies, n Odds ratio (95% CI) P heterogeneity I 2 Study reference
Subgroup analysis
 The definition of night
  18:00–06:00 3 1.36 (1.29, 1.43) 0.198 38.30% [9, 15, 30]
  18:00–07:59 3 1.30 (1.15, 1.46) 0.432 0.00% [10, 12, 29]
  19:00–07:59 1 1.29 (1.14, 1.46)    [31]
  19:00–06:59 1 1.05 (0.64, 1.70)    [13]
  22:00–07:30 1 1.7(1.03, 2.9)    [7]
  21:00–06:59 1 1.22 (1.10, 1.36)    [11]
  16:00–08:00 1 1.11(0.93, 1.31)    [14]
  20:00–07:59 1 1.70 (1.28, 2.25)    [6]
  22:00–06:59 2 1.30 (0.96, 1.76) 0.209 36.80% [5, 8]
 Geographic region
  Oceania 6 1.35 (1.31, 1.39) 0.457 0.00% [710, 15, 30]
  Europe 4 1.33 (1.08, 1.63) 0.039 64.00% [5, 6, 14, 29]
  North America 4 1.24 (1.16, 1.33) 0.82 0.00% [1113, 31]
 Total discharge number
   ≤ 10000 4 1.56 (1.32, 1.84) 0.785 0.00% [6, 7, 10, 29]
   > 10000 10 1.29 (1.23, 1.36) 0.091 39.90% [5, 8, 9, 1115, 30, 31]
 Study design
  Multicenter studies 8 1.30 (1.23, 1.38) 0.067 47.00% [5, 9, 11, 14, 15, 2931]
  Single-center studies 6 1.38 (1.20, 1.59) 0.268 22.10% [68, 10, 12, 13]
 Whether or not adjusted for severity of illness at the time of ICU discharge
  YES 3 1.26 (1.02, 1.57) 0.296 17.80% [13, 15, 29]
  NO 11 1.31 (1.25, 1.38) 0.076 40.90% [512, 14, 30, 31]
 Whether or not adjusted for treatment limitation orders
  Yes 6 1.28 (1.15, 1.43) 0.152 38.10% [7, 1315, 29, 30]
  No 8 1.32 (1.23, 1.42) 0.116 39.40% [5, 6, 812, 31]
 whether or not adjusted for premature discharge
  Yes 2 1.31 (0.94, 1.84) 0.2 39.20% [5, 7]
  No 12 1.31 (1.25, 1.38) 0.09 37.70% [6, 815, 2931]
 Sensitivity analysis
  Fixed-effects model 14 1.33 (1.30, 1.37) 0.105 33.80% [515, 2931]
  Random-effects model 14 1.31 (1.25, 1.38) 0.105 33.80% [515, 2931]
 One-study-out method
  Santamaria et al./2015 1 1.31 (1.24, 1.39)    [15]
  Azevedo et al./2015 1 1.31 (1.25, 1.37)    [31]
  Gantner et al./2014 1 1.31 (1.24, 1.38)    [30]
  Laupland et al./2011 1 1.30 (1.21, 1.39)    [29]
  Singh et al./2010 1 1.32 (1.25, 1.39)    [10]
  Hanane et al./2008 1 1.31 (1.25, 1.38)    [13]
  Laupland et al./2008 1 1.32 (1.25, 1.39)    [12]
  Pilcher et al./2007 1 1.31 (1.24, 1.37)    [9]
  Tobin et al./2006 1 1.29 (1.22, 1.36)    [8]
  Priestap et al./2006 1 1.33 (1.26, 1.40)    [11]
  Duke et al./2004 1 1.32 (1.25, 1.38)    [7]
  Uusaro et al./2003 1 1.31 (1.24, 1.38)    [14]
  Beck et al./2002 1 1.31 (1.24, 1.38)    [6]
  Goldfrad et al./2000 1 1.33 (1.27, 1.39)    [5]