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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of patients before and after propensity matching

From: Inhaled nitric oxide and the risk of renal dysfunction in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome: a propensity-matched cohort study

Characteristic Overall cohort (n = 547) Propensity-matched cohort (n = 302)
iNO users (n = 216) Non-users (n = 331) P value iNO users (n = 151) Non-users (n = 151) P value
Age, years 61 ± 17 64 ± 16 0.07 63 ± 17 62 ± 16 0.59
Female sex, n (%) 66 (30.6) 114 (34.4) 0.34 48 (31.8) 50 (33.1) 0.81
ARDS severity
 Moderate, n (%) 105 (49) 208 (63) 0.001 82 (54) 74 (49) 0.36
 Severe, n (%) 111 (51) 123 (37)   69 (46) 77 (51)  
Body-mass index, kg/m2 23.3 ± 4.7 21.9 ± 3.9 <0.001 22.7 ± 4.7 22.7 ± 4.0 0.95
Cause of ARDS, n (%)
 Pneumonia 167 (77.3) 258 (78.0) 0.52 121 (80.1) 122 (80.8) 0.93
 Non-pulmonary sepsis 32 (14.8) 47 (14.2) 20 (13.3) 19 (12.6)
 Acute interstitial pneumonia 11 (5.1) 10 (3.0) 7 (4.6) 5 (3.3)
 Multiple transfusion 1 (0.5) 5 (1.5) 1 (0.7) 2 (1.3)
 Others 5 (2.3) 11 (3.3) 2 (1.3) 3 (2.0)
Renal function
 Creatinine, mg/dL 1.1 (0.8–1.6) 1.1 (0.8 − 1.8) 0.75 1.1 (0.8 − 1.6) 1.0 (0.8 − 1.7) 0.83
 Creatinine clearance, mL/min 57.0 (35.5 − 82.2) 48.3 (31.0 − 70.2) 0.01 55.2 (35 − 81) 53.8 (33.3–81.5) 0.97
 AKI stage 1, n (%) 57 (78) 91 (79)   39 (81) 42 (84)  
 AKI stage 2, n (%) 9 (12) 13 (11) 0.98 5 (10) 4 (8) 0.91
 AKI stage 3, n (%) 7 (10) 11 (10)   4 (8) 4 (8)  
Shock, n (%) 91 (42.1) 117 (35.4) 0.11 56 (37.1) 56 (37.1) 1.00
SAPS II 49.9 ± 15.1 49.8 ± 14.7 0.95 49.9 ± 14.2 50.2 ± 15.2 0.89
Lung injury score, total score 11.4 ± 1.9 10.95 ± 1.9 0.005 11.3 ± 1.8 11.5 ± 1.8 0.46
FiO2 0.9 (0.6–0.9) 0.7 (0.6–1.0) <0.001 0.8 (0.6–1.0) 0.8 (0.6–1.0) 0.96
PaO2/FiO2 96 (68 − 134) 123 (84–181) <0.001 104 (74–143) 99 (66 − 140) 0.45
PEEP, cm H2O 8.9 ± 3.6 8.1 ± 3.0 0.002 8.3 ± 3.4 8.7 ± 3.2 0.35
Tidal volume, mL/pBW 8.7 ± 1.9 8.5 ± 2.0 0.23 8.7 ± 1.9 8.6 ± 2.0 0.82
pH 7.38 ± 0.10 7.39 ± 0.09 0.35 7.39 ± 0.10 7.40 ± 0.08 0.66
PaO2, mmHg 82.0 ± 33.2 94.2 ± 43.4 <0.001 83.9 ± 35.0 80.9 ± 32.0 0.45
PaCO2,mmHg 37.5 ± 10.4 37.1 ± 10.5 0.67 37.4 ± 9.9 37.3 ± 8.7 0.97
HCO3 -, mmol/L 22.0 ± 5.1 22.5 ± 5.6 0.27 22.3 ± 5.2 22.5 ± 4.7 0.66
Static respiratory compliance, mL/cm-H2O 29.6 ± 12.8 29.7 ± 13.1 0.92 29.0 ± 12.4 30.2 ± 13.7 0.45
Plateau pressure, cm H2O 28 ± 6.8 26 ± 7.3 0.03 27 ± 6.1 27 ± 7.9 0.70
Driving pressure (cm H2O) 18.8 ± 6.4 18.2 ± 6.6 0.35 18.5 ± 5.6 18.5 ± 7.1 0.95
Mean airway pressure, cm H2O 15.7 ± 4.3 14.5 ± 3.9 0.002 15.0 ± 4.1 15.2 ± 3.8 0.62
Duration of mechanical ventilation, days 11 (6–20) 12 (7–24) 0.09 12 (6–22) 12 (6–21) 0.93
  1. Data are expressed as the mean ± standard deviation or median (interquartile range) unless otherwise specified. Detailed variables used in the propensity score model are listed in Additional file 1: Table S1. Abbreviations: ARDS acute respiratory distress syndrome, AKI acute kidney injury, iNO inhaled nitric oxide, PEEP positive end-expiratory pressure, pBW predicted body weight, SAPS Simplified Acute Physiology Score