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Table 1 Data on extracorporeal removal and PK/PD parameters obtained from literature analysis

From: Effects of continuous renal replacement therapy on linezolid pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics: a systematic review

   2016; Roger et al. 2005; Meyer et al. 2005; Meyer et al. 2004; Fiaccadori et al. 2004; Pea et al. 2016. Roger et al. 2012 Carcelero et al. 2006; Mauro et al. 2014; Zoller et al. 2012; Ide et al. 2003; Kraft et al. 2015; Villa et al. 2014; Zoller et al.
Prospective RCT Prospective observational study Prospective observational study Prospective observational study Prospective observational case report Prospective RCT Prospective observational case report Prospective observational case report Prospective observational study Abstract Prospective observational case report Prospective observational case report Prospective observational study
Treatment parameters Number of procedures 8 7 13 2 2 9 2 1 2 14 1 3 3
Treatment CVVH-post CVVH-post CVVH-post CVVH-pre CVVH-pre CVVHDF-post CVVHDF-pre CVVHDF-pre CVVHDF-? CVVHDF-? CVVHDF-? CVVHD CVVHD
Membrane HF HF HF HF HF HF HF HF HF HF HF HCO PAES HF
PS PS PS PAN PS PS PAN PAN PS PS PS PS
1.2 m2 1.2 m2 0.9 m2 1.65 m2 1.25 m2 1.2 m2 0.9 m2 1 m2 1.4 m2 ? 1.6 m2 1.1 m2 1.8 m2
Qb (ml/min) 200 (185–245) 189 ± 15 185 ± 15 150 125 (120–130) 200 (165–200) 165 (150–180) 200 130 (100–150) 79.3 ± 2.7 200 150 120 (80–150)
Qd (L/h)       1.14a 1 (1–1) 1.2a 1.4 (1.2–1.5) 0.52 ± 0.31 2 3a (2.9–3.2) 1.6 (1–2)
Qf (L/h) 1.67a 2.5 ± 0.6 2.3 ± 0.4 2.25 (2–2.5) 2 (2–2) 1.22a 1.5 (1–2) 0.2 1.5 (1–2) 0.33 ± 0.15 0.75 -  
QfNET (ml/h) 0–200     115 (80–150) 0–200 100 (50–150)   125 (50–200)   774 100 100 (50–200)
UFNET (L) 3.6 (0.2–4.3)      1.1 (0.4–1.6)        
BW 76 (55–92) 90 ± 22a 83 ± 15a 64 (57–72) 64.5 (54–75) 76 (55–92) 67.5 (55–80) 125    100 86 (83–90)  
Prescribed dose (ml/kg/h) 30    35 (35–35) 33.6 (29–39) 30 41.2a (27–56) 11.2    27.7a 30  
Effective time of treatment (min) 715 (697–751)    675 (630–720)   745 (645–733)    3990     5000
APACHE II   30 ± 5 (24–40) 26 ± 8 (7–32) 27 (27–27)    27 (26–28)   31.5 (28–35)     25 (23–28)
SOFA at RRT initiation 12 (10–16)      13 (6–17) 15 (15–15)      14.3 (13–15)  
Parameters of CRRT removal SA/SC (%)   77 ± 10 (62–86) 69 ± 10 (53–91) 59 (56–61) 84 (76–92)   78 (74–82)    0.86 ± 0.03 79 74 (66–80)  
Qef (L/h) 1.98a 2.5 ± 0.6 (1.5–3) 2.3 ± 0.4 (1.5–3)   2.1 (2.1–2.2) 2.4a 2.6a (2.2–3.1) 1.4a    2.8 3a (2.9–3.2)  
Qef (ml/kg/h) 26a 27.8a (16.3–40) 27.7a (15–37.5)    32.2a       30  
XCRRT (mg)     89.9 (75–105) 237 (160–314)   218.9 (154–283) 50.1     197.6 (154–266)  
CLCRRT (L/h)   2.3 ± 0.9 (1.3–4.3) 1.6 ± 0.5 (0.9–2.7) 1.2 (1.2–1.3) 1.4 (1-2–1.6)   2.1 (1.8–2.3) 0.9    2.2 2.3 (2.1–2.5)  
PK and PD parameters Cmax (mg/L) ~19b 12.4 ± 2.3 (7.6–10.5) 16.9 ± 3.8 (11.4–21.9) 19.93 (15.9–23.9) 28.67 (17.1–40.3) ~18b 18.85 (16.5 − 21.2) 15.3    16.4 17.13 (10.4–23.5)  
Cmin (mg/L) ~6b 1.7 ± 1.2 (0.3–3.7) 2 ± 1.9 (0.3 − 8)   14.1 (6.5–21.7) ~4b 5.4 (5.2–5.6) 3.8 9.4 (4.2–14.5)   7.2 6.2 (2.9–10.3) 8.5 (3.7–18.7)
T1/2 (h)   4.6 ± 1.6 (2.4–7.1) 4.1 ± 1.8 (2.1 − 8.4) 4.6 (2.6–6.5) 15.5 (12.5–-18.5)   6.2 (4.9–7.4)    8.78 ± 3.74 7.5 7.7 (6.1–10.1)  
AUC0-∞ (mg•h/L) 227.9 ± 115 67.6 (34–118) 85.7 (40–244)   444.6 (219–669) 227.9 ± 115 263.5 (214–312) 105.8a 303.9 (165–442) 247.9 ± 107.8   208.2 (95–352) 283.1 (144–453)
Vd (L) 26.5 ± 10.3 60.5 ± 8.6 (42.9–70.8) 46.3 ± 11.1 (29.9–70.7) 31.4 (25.2–37.6) 67.9 (91.5–44.3) 26.5 ± 10.3 44 (29.2–58.8)    31 ± 3.8 49 48.9 (39.9–57.9)  
CLtot (L/h) 4.5 10.4 ± 3.9 (5.1–17.6) 8.7 ± 3.0 (2.5–14.7)   3.6 (1.8–5.5) 5.9 4.5 (3.6–5.3) 11.3   294 ± 1.38 5.1 3.8 (1.7–6.3)  
CLCRRT/CLtot (%)   22.6a 18.7a   48.89 (28.7–69.1)   48.9a (33.9–63.9) 7.9a    43.1 67.1 (39.6–100)  
AUC0-∞/MIC 4 mg/L   33.8a 42.8a   111.1 (54–167)   65.9a (53–78) 26.5a     52.0 (23–88)  
AUC0-∞/MIC 2 mg/L   67.6a 85.7a   222.3 (109–334)   131.8a (107–156) 52.9a     104.1 (47–176)  
AUCfree/MIC 4 mg/L             35.9 (16–61)  
AUCfree/MIC 2 mg/L             71.8 (33–122)  
% T > MIC 4 mg/L   51 ± 19 (26–88) 61 ± 36 (31–164)           
% T > MIC 2 mg/L   89 ± 32 (46–137) 96 ± 50 (48–234)           
  1. aCalculated from data presented in the original paper. bDerived from figures presented in the original paper. Qb blood flow, Qd dialysate flow, Qf replacement flow, Qf NET net ultrafiltration flow, UF NET net ultrafiltrate, BW body weight, APACHE II Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, SA/SC saturation coefficient or sieving coefficient, Qeff effluent flow, X CRRT total amount of drug eliminated by the extracorporeal treatment, CL CRRT extracorporeal clearance, Cmax antibiotic maximum serum concentration, Cmin antibiotic trough, T 1/2 elimination half-life, AUC area under the curve, Vd volume of distribution, CLtot total clearance