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Table 2 Demographic, injury and clinical characteristics of subjects included in the derivation cohort by coagulopathy status

From: Development and validation of a prehospital prediction model for acute traumatic coagulopathy

  INR ≤1.5 (n = 1848) INR >1.5 (n = 115) P
Age 44.4 (18.3) 47.4 (20.9) 0.13
Male sex 1338 (72.5) 84 (73.0) 0.90
Race      0.21
 Black 58 (3.2) 4 (3.5)  
 White 1491 (82.2) 86 (76.1)
 Other 264 (14.6) 23 (20.4)
Hispanic 185 (10.2) 14 (12.4) 0.50
Minutes from injury to ED arrival 51 (39–70) 49 (34 − 67) 0.14
Mechanism of injury      0.005
 Motor vehicle crash 611 (33.1) 31 (27.0)  
 Motorcycle crash 180 (9.7) 5 (4.3)
 Bicycle crash 82 (4.4) 1 (0.9)
 Pedestrian struck 106 (5.7) 14 (12.2)
 Fall 404 (21.9) 31 (27.0)
 Other 465 (25.2) 33 (28.7)
Injury severity indicators
 Ejection from vehicle 65 (3.5) 4 (3.5) 1.0
 Extrication 129 (7.0) 9 (7.8) 0.73
 Rollover motor vehicle crash 150 (8.1) 9 (7.8) 0.91
First measured pre-hospital vital signs
 Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 131 (27) 119 (29) <0.001
 Heart rate 94 (22) 94 (30) 0.87
 Respiratory rate 20 (5.2) 21 (6.8) 0.33
First recorded non-intubated GCS 15 (13–15) 14 (9 − 15) <0.001
Pre-hospital interventions
 Cardiopulmonary resuscitation 25 (1.4) 16 (13.9) <0.001
 Chest decompression 24 (1.3) 5 (4.4) 0.024
 Intubation 273 (14.8) 44 (38.3) <0.001
Initial ED temperature (°C) 36.4 (0.97) 35.5 (2.12) <0.001
Injury severity score 16.8 (11.7) 25.7 (1.3) <0.001
Death before discharge 122 (6.6) 53 (46.1) <0.001
Hospital length of stay (days) 6 (2–12) 6 (1 − 19) 0.38
  1. Values reported as median (SD), number (%) or median (IQR). ED emergency department, GCS Glasgow Coma Score, INR international normalized ratio