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Table 1 Patient characteristics

From: Resting energy expenditure, calorie and protein consumption in critically ill patients: a retrospective cohort study

Variable Overall Survived Died within 60 days P value
Number 1171 846 325  
Age, years, median (IQR) 60.52 (28.9) 55.95 (30.82) 68.06 (19.66) <0.001
Male gender, n (%) 747 (63.8) 471 (62.1) 276 (67.0) 0.106
Year of inclusion, median (IQR) 2010 (5) 2010 (5) 2010 (5) 0.01
Weight, kg, median (IQR) 80 (20) 80 (20) 80 (23.5) 0.9
Height, m, mean (sd) 1.70 (0.09) 1.70 (0.10) 1.69 (0.09) 0.027
BMI, kg/m2, mean (sd) 28.01 (7.82) 27.96 (7.28) 28.14 (9.08) 0.75
Metabolic
 Daily protein intake, g, mean (sd) 67.79 (21.93) 69.54 (22.09) 64.58 (21.28) <0.001
 Percent of requirement, mean (sd) 89.69 (32) 86.92 (32.76) 91.2 (31.62) 0.03
 REE, mean (sd) 1944.10 (495.15) 1999.25 (485.37) 1842.50 (497.48) <0.001
 Harris-Benedict REE, mean (sd) 2304.50 (468.52) 2339.65 (443.56) 2239.73 (505.50) <0.001
 25 kcal/kg REE, mean (sd) 2019.42 (542.10) 2017.94 (507.44) 2022.13 (601.38) 0.9
 Total daily calories received, kcal, mean (sd) 1651.08 (476.52) 1689.08 (478.68) 1581.07 (465.02) <0.001
 Daily enteral calories, kcal, mean (sd) 1287.43 (624.36) 1369.94 (608.32) 1135.41 (625.69) <0.001
 Daily parenteral calories, kcal, mean (sd) 363.65 (542.54) 319.14 (507.43) 445.66 (593.86) <0.001
 Parenteral calories >70 % of total, n (%) 134 (11.4) 65 (7,7) 69 (21.2) <0.001
 Administered calories/REE percent, mean (sd) 89 (30) 88 (28) 91 (33) 0.115
 Daily insulin therapy, units, mean (sd) 44.36 (11.33) 44.46 (11.58) 44.16 (10.89) 0.679
Admission category
 Surgical, n (%) 499 (42.6) 363 (42.9) 136 (33.0) <0.001
 Trauma patient, n (%) 258 (22.0) 209 (27.5) 49 (11.9) <0.001
 Medical, n (%) 672 (57.4) 483 (57.1) 189 (58.1) 0.93
 Sepsis, n (%) 267 (22.8) 152 (20.0) 115 (27.9) 0.003
 Respiratory, n (%) 285 (24.3) 179 (23.6) 106 (25.7) 0.456
 Cardiac, n (%) 242 (20.7) 121 (15.9) 121 (29.4) <0.001
Severity
 APACHE IIa, median (IQR) 22 (10) 20 (9) 26 (9.75) <0.001
 SOFA score, median (IQR) 8 (5) 7 (5) 9 (6) <0.001
 Vasopressors used, n (%) 904 (77.2) 534 (70.4) 370 (89.8) <0.001
 Vasopressor days, median (IQR) 4 (6) 4 (4) 6 (7)  
Gastrointestinal
 Diarrhea, n (%) 598 (51.1) 412 (54.3) 186 (45.1) 0.003
 Diarrhea occurrences, median (IQR) 7 (13) 7 (14) 6 (12) 0.01
 Constipation, n (%) 792 (67.6) 531 (70.0) 261 (63.3) 0.025
 Constipation days, mean (sd) 6 (4) 7 (3) 6 (4)  
 Large GRV or vomiting, n (%) 433 (37.0) 300 (39.5) 133 (32.3) 0.017
 Large GRV or vomiting occurrences (median (IQR)) 3(6) 3(6) 3 (7) 0.72
Laboratory data
 White blood cells, 109/L, mean (sd) 12.05 (6.48) 12.19 (6.19) 11.79 (6.97) 0.316
 Neutrophil count, 109/L, mean (sd) 10.62 (6.04) 10.74 (5.82) 10.40 (6.42) 0.36
 Platelets, 109/L, median (IQR) 176 (119) 178 (111) 169.50 (134) 0.29
 Fibrinogen, g/L, median (IQR) 484 (372) 442 (360.5) 543 (350.75) <0.001
 INR, median (IQR) 1.27 (0.39) 1.24 (0.35) 1.32 (0.49) <0.001
 Albumin, g/dl, mean (sd) 2.59 (0.79) 2.66 (0.81) 2.46 (0.73) <0.001
 Total bilirubin, mg/dl, median (IQR) 0.70 (0.75) 0.67 (0.67) 0.74 (0.96) <0.001
 CRP, mg/dl, median (IQR) 11.05 (17.35) 10.87 (17.57) 11.31 (16.83) 0.41
 Creatinine, mg/dl, median (IQR) 0.95 (0.86) 0.84 (0.61) 1.25 (1.3) <0.001
  1. aAvailable only for 52 % of patients. n number of patients, BMI body mass index, REE resting energy expenditure, APACHE acute physiology and chronic health evaluation, SOFA sequential organ failure assessment, GRV gastric residual volume, INR international normalized ratio, CRP C-reactive protein