Skip to main content

Table 2 Causes of shock in the 134 patients with non-early-confirmed septic shock (non EC-SS, i.e., patients with shock but no source of infection or microbiological documentation at 24 h after onset of shock)

From: Septic shock with no diagnosis at 24 hours: a pragmatic multicenter prospective cohort study

Causes Number (%)
Late-confirmed septic shock (LC-SS), n/total study sample (%) 37/134 (28)
 Pleuro-pulmonary 13/37 (35)
 Urinary tract 6/37 (16)
 Abdomen 4/37 (11)
 Liver and biliary tract 4/37 (11)
 Primary bloodstream infection 4/37 (11)
 Skin and soft tissues 2/37 (5)
 Endocarditis 1/37 (3)
 Bone-joint 1/37 (3)
 Central nervous system 1/37 (3)
 Endovascular stent infection 1/37 (3)
Septic shock mimickers (SSM), n/total study sample (%) 59/134 (44)
 Adverse effects of drugs 22/59 (37)
  Metformin 10
  Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers 4
  β-blockers 2
  Propofol 2
  Othersa 4
 Vascular 12/59 (20)
  Acute mesenteric ischemia 12
   Arterial 10
   Venous 2
 Malignancies 9/59 (15)
  Lymphoma 3
  Solid tumor (including one Marastic endocarditis) 4
  Tumor lysis syndrome 2
 Inflammatory diseases 5/59 (8)
  Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis 2
  Drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms 1
  Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome 1
  Cholesterol embolization syndrome 1
 Metabolic disorders 4/59 (7)
  Acute adrenal insufficiency 2
  Diabetic ketoacidosis 2
 Acute pancreatitis 4/59 (7)
 Miscellaneous 3/59 (5)
  Abdominal compartment syndrome 1
  Air embolismb 1
  “Reventilation” syndrome 1
Shock of unknown origin (SUO), n/total study sample (%) 38/134 (28 %)
  1. Categorical variables are expressed as n (%). aIncluding neuroleptic (n = 1), lithium (n = 1), intravenous immunoglobulins (n = 1), sorafenib (n = 1). bAir embolism was clinically suspected and confirmed by autopsy