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Table 1 Patient characteristics at inclusion

From: Cardiac dysfunction induced by weaning from mechanical ventilation: incidence, risk factors, and effects of fluid removal

  All patients Patients with at least one WiPO Patients without any WiPO P valuea
(n = 81) (n = 29) (n = 52)
Age (years) 62 ± 15 67 ± 12 60 ± 16 0.03
Male gender 41 (51 %) 14 (48 %) 27 (52 %)  
Simplified Acute Physiology Score II 47 ± 18 53 ± 22 43 ± 14 0.01
Body mass index (on admission) 27 ± 8 31 ± 10 24 ± 6 <0.01
 Obesity 22 (27 %) 13 (45 %) 9 (17 %) 0.01
Aetiology of intubation
 Pneumonia 35 (43 %) 13 (45 %) 22 (42 %) 0.99
 Septic shock without pneumonia 27 (33 %) 10 (34 %) 17 (33 %) 0.93
 Coma 6 (7 %) 0 (0 %) 6 (7 %) <0.01
 Drug poisoning of other origin 2 (2 %) 0 (0 %) 2 (2 %) <0.01
 Neuromuscular disease 5 (6 %) 0 (0 %) 5 (10 %) 0.07
 Cardiogenic shock 4 (5 %) 4 (14 %) 0 (0 %) 0.01
 Exacerbation of COPD 2 (2 %) 2 (7 %) 0 (0 %) 0.24
Previous COPD 17 (21 %) 11 (38 %) 6 (11 %) 0.01
Previous cardiovascular diseases
 Hypertension 53 (65 %) 22 (76 %) 31 (60 %) 0.22
 Atrial fibrillation 13 (16 %) 9 (31 %) 4 (8 %) 0.01
 “Structural” cardiopathy 32 (39 %) 19 (69 %) 13 (25 %) 0.00
  Dilated cardiopathy 23 (28 %) 14(48 %) 9 (17 %) 0.00
  Hypertrophic cardiopathy 7 (4 %) 4 (3 %) 3 (4 %) 0.41
  Significant valvular disease 2 (2 %) 1 (3 %) 1 (2 %) 0.75
 Coronary artery disease 13 (16 %) 6 (21 %) 7 (13 %) 0.59
 Sepsis-related cardiopathy 6 (6 %) 5 (17 %) 1 (2 %) 0.01
 Left ventricular ejection fraction <45 % 27 (33 %) 16 (55 %) 11 (21 %) <0.01
Total ventilation duration (days) 13 ± 14 20 ± 15 8 ± 12 <0.01
Ventilation duration before the first SBT (days) 6 ± 7 6 ± 6 4 ± 5 0.06
Total duration of ICU stay (days) 17 ± 16 26 ± 16 12 ± 14 <0.01
ICU mortality 6 (7 %) 2 (7 %) 4 (8 %) 0.76
  1. Values are expressed as mean ± standard deviation or number and frequency (%)
  2. aPatients with at least one WiPO vs. patients without WiPO
  3. COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ICU intensive care unit, SBT spontaneous breathing trial, WiPO weaning-induced pulmonary oedema