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Table 2 Reported outcomes of included randomized clinical trials evaluating intravenous selenium supplementation in critically ill patients

From: High-dose intravenous selenium does not improve clinical outcomes in the critically ill: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study Mortality (%) Infections (%) LOS days
Experimental Control Experimental Control Experimental Control
Kuklinski 1991 [38] ICU 0/8 (0) ICU 8/9 ( 89) NR NR NR NR
Zimmerman 1997 [39] 3/20 (15) 8/20 (40) NR NR NR NR
Berger 1998 [40] 1/10 (10) 0/10 (0) 1.9 ± 0.9 (1–4) 3.1 ± 1.1 (2–5) ICU ICU
per patient per patient 30 ± 12 (10) 39 ± 13 (10)
Hospital Hospital
54 ± 27 (10) 66 ± 31 (10)
Angstwurm 1999 [41] Hospital Hospital NR NR NR NR
7/21 (33) 11/21 (52)
Porter 1999 [42] 0/9 (0) 0/9 (0) 5/9 (56) 8/9 (89) ICU ICU
22 ± 25.2 35.8 ± 21.9
Hospital Hospital
31.3 ± 23.4 49 ± 30
Berger 2001 [43] (a) Selenium alone 1/11 (9) (a) Selenium alone 5/11 (42) (a) ICU
2/9 (22) 5/9 (56) ICU 8.6 ± 8.1 (12)
(b) Selenium + zinc + α-tocopherol (b) Selenium + zinc + α-tocopherol 8.0 ± 4.0 (9) Hospital
Hospital 64 ± 39 (12)
0/11 (0) 3/11 (27) 82 ± 78 (9)
(b)
ICU
5.8 ± 4.4 (11)
Hospital
60 ± 48 (11)
Linder 2004 [44] Not specified Not specified NA NA Hospital Hospital
5/32 (15.6) 3/35 (8.6) 24 (9–44) 26 (11–46)
Angstwurm 2007 [45] 28-day 28-day New infections (HAP) New infections (HAP) ICU ICU
46/116 (40) 61/122 (50) 10/116 (9) 10/122 (8) 15.1 ± 10 (116) 12.7 ± 9 (122)
Berger 2007 [46] 1/11 (9) 1/10 (10) 2.1 ± 1.0 3.6 ± 1.3 ICU ICU
per patient per patient 35 ± 27 (11) 47 ± 37 (10)
Forceville 2007 [47] 28-day 28-day Superinfection Superinfection ICU ICU
14/31 (45) 13/29 (45) 1/31 (3) 2/29 (7) 21 (7–40) 18 (10–31)
6-month 6-month Hospital Hospital
18/31 (59) 20/29 (68) 25 (7–68) 33 (11–51)
1-year 1-year
66 % 71 %
Mishra 2007 [48] ICU 8/18 (44) ICU 11/22 (61) 1.5 ± 1.9 1.8 ± 1.6 ICU ICU
Hospital Hospital per patient per patient 21.3 ± 16.2 (18) 20.8 ± 21.8 (18)
11/18 (61) 15/22 (68)
28-day 28-day
8/18 (44) 11/22 (50)
Berger 2008 [49] ICU ICU 36/102 (35) 34/98 (35) ICU ICU
8/102 (8) 5/98 (5) 5.8 ± 5.4 (102) 5.4 ± 5.7 (98)
Hospital Hospital Hospital Hospital
14/102 (14) 9/98 (11) 23 ± 20 (102) 26 ± 20 (98)
3-month 3-month
14/102 (14) 11/98 (11)
El-Attar 2009 [50] ICU ICU VAP VAP NR NR
2/40 (5.6) 1/40 (2.9) 5/36 (14) 7/34 (21)
Montoya 2009 [51] Hospital Hospital NR NR Hospital Hospital
6/34 (18) 8/34 (24) 12 (12–14) 17 (14–20)
Andrews 2011 [52] ICU ICU Confirmed Confirmed ICU ICU
84/251 (33) 84/251 (33) 104/251 (41) 121/251 (48) 13.2 (IQR 7.8–23.7) 15.1 (IQR 8.3–28.4)
6-month 6-month Hospital Hospital
107/251 (43) 114/251 (45) 29.8 (IQR 14.7–52.4) 31.2 (IQR 15.1–57.8)
Manzanares 2011 [53] ICU ICU VAP VAP ICU ICU
3/15 (20) 5/16 (31) 3/15 (20) 7/16 (44) 14 ± 11 (15) 13 ± 6 (16)
Hospital Hospital
5/15 (33) 7/16 (44)
Valenta 2011 [54] 28-day 28-day NR NR NR NR
19/75 (25) 24/75 (32)
Heyland 2013 [16] Hospital Hospital All All ICU ICU
216/617 (35) 199/601 (33) 168/617 (27) 181/601 (30) 14.2 ± 22.7 (617) 13.8 ± 23.1 (601)
14-day 14-day VAP VAP Hospital Hospital
154/617 (25) 132/601 (22) 71/617 (12) 95/601 (16) 31.2 ± 50.2 (617) 29.5 ± 44.8 (601)
28-day 28-day
190/617 (31) 173/601 (29)
3-month 3-month
239 222
6-month 6-month
250 235
Woth 2014 [14] In 14-day study period In 14-day study period Gram-negative Gram-negative NR NR
9/21 (43) 11/19 (58) 8/21 (38) 3/19 (16)
Gram-positive Gram-positive
3/21 (14) 2/19 (11)
Fungal Fungal
1/21 (5) 0/19 (0)
Bloos 2016 [17] 28-day 28-day Secondary infections, day 14 Secondary infections, day 14 ICU ICU
152/543 (28) 137/546 (25) 11 (5–22) 12 (6–24)
90-day 90-day 243/543 (44.7 %) 269/546 (49.3 %) Hospital Hospital
198/543 (38) 201/546 (38) Secondary infections, day 21 Secondary infections, day 21 26 (16–42) 29 (17–50)
319/543 (58.8 %) 323/546 (59.2 %)
Chelkeba 2015 [15] 28-day 28-day VAP VAP ICU ICU
9/29 (31) 10/25 (40) 16/26 (61.5) 21/25 (84) 19.7 ± 11 (26) 23.8 ± 13 (25)
Hospital Hospital
25.2 ± 10 (26) 24.5 ± 9 (25)
  1. Abbreviations: HAP Hospital-acquired pneumonia, ICU Intensive care unit, NA Nonattributable, NR Nonreported, , VAP Ventilator-associated pneumonia