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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of study subjects

From: Bioavailable estradiol concentrations are elevated and predict mortality in septic patients: a prospective cohort study

  Controls (n = 51) Sepsis (n = 131) p Value Survivors (n = 98) Nonsurvivors (n = 33) p Value
Age, years 60 (53–66) 62 (48–74) 0.65 57 (47–69) 71 (61–78) <0.01
Male sex 26 (51 %) 75 (57 %) 0.45 56 (57 %) 19 (58 %) 0.97
Race    0.23    0.09
 White 48 (94 %) 108 (82 %)   81 (83 %) 27 (82 %)  
 African American 3 (6 %) 20 (15 %)   16 (16 %) 4 (12 %)  
 Asian 0 1 (1 %)   1 (1 %) 0  
 Hispanic/Latino 0 2 (2 %)   0 2 (6 %)  
Charlson comorbidity index [32] 0 (0–1) 3 (1–6) <0.01 2 (1–5) 4 (3–8) <0.01
Admission type      0.01
 Medical patient 118 (90 %)   92 (78 %) 26 (22 %)  
 Surgical patient 13 (10 %)   6 (46 %) 7 (54 %)  
Site of infection      0.74
 Pulmonary 76 (58 %)   54 (55 %) 22 (67 %)  
 Intra-abdominal 19 (15 %)   14 (14 %) 5 (15 %)  
 Urinary 15 (11 %)   13 (13 %) 2 (6 %)  
 Skin/catheter 6 (5 %)   5 (5 %) 1 (3 %)  
 Other 15 (11 %)   12 (12 %) 3 (9 %)  
Microbiology      0.34
 Gram-positive bacteria 42 (32 %)   30 (31 %) 12 (36 %)  
 Gram-negative bacteria 20 (15 %)   15 (15 %) 5 (2 %)  
 Fungal 3 (2 %)   3 (3 %) 0  
 Mixed or other 27 (21 %)   17 (17 %) 10 (30 %)  
 Unknown 39 (30 %)   33 (34 %) 6 (2 %)  
Positive blood culture 48 (37 %) 36 (37 %) 12 (36 %) 0.97
Septic shocka 107 (82 %) 75 (77 %) 32 (97 %) 0.01
APACHE II score 24 ± 9 22 ± 8 30 ± 9 <0.01
SOFA scoreb       
 Minimum 7 (5–9) 6 (4–8) 11 (8–12) <0.01
 Maximum 10 (8–13) 9 (8–11) 13 (11–16) <0.01
 Mean 8 (6–11) 8 (6–9) 12 (9–14) <0.01
ICU LOS, days 6 (3–12) 6 (3–11) 8 (3–17) 0.21
Hospital LOS, days 15 (9–29)   14 (9–26) 15 (7–39) 0.43
Ventilator-free days 0–28c 21 (3–28) 24 (20–28) 0 (0–0) <0.01
  1. Abbreviations: APACHE II Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II [29], SOFA Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment, LOS Length of stay, ICU Intensive care unit
  2. Values are median (interquartile range), number (percentage), or mean ± SD
  3. aShock was defined as hypotension or vasopressor dependence that persisted for ≥3 h despite fluid challenge at the time of diagnosis
  4. bDaily SOFA scores were calculated. Values refer to the minimum, maximum, and mean SOFA scores from the day of diagnosis through day 7
  5. cVentilator-free days 0–28 represent the number of days free of ventilator support from the day of diagnosis through day 28