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Table 1 Baseline characteristics

From: Hydrocortisone treatment in early sepsis-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome: results of a randomized controlled trial

Characteristics Hydrocortisone
(n = 98)
Placebo
(n = 99)
p Valuea
Age, years 64.5 ± 17.3 64.3 ± 16.0 0.76
Male sex, n (%) 50 (51) 51 (51.5) 1.0
APACHE II scoreb 21.7 ± 5.7 21.9 ± 5.7 0.79
SOFA scorec 10.9 ± 3.5 10.8 ± 3.6 0.91
Lung Injury Score,d mean ± SE 2.2 ± 0.9 2.2 ± 1.0 0.7
Vasopressor-dependent shock, n (%) 78 (79.6) 76 (76.8) 0.55
Lactate, mmol/L 3.9 ± 2.2 4.0 ± 2.5 0.95
Lactate >2 mmol/L, n (%) 85 (86.7) 82 (82.7) 0.55
Mild ARDS: PaO2/FiO2 201–300,e n (%) 32 (32.7) 33 (33.7) 1.0
Moderate ARDS: PaO2/FiO2 101–200,e n (%) 54 (55.1) 48 (48) 0.39
Severe ARDS: PaO2/FiO2 ≤ 100,e n (%) 12 (12.2) 18 (18.4) 0.32
Tidal volume, ml/kg of predicted body weight 7.06 ± 1.12 7.57 ± 1.34 0.04
Tidal volume >8 ml/kg of predicted body weight, n (%) 35 (35.4) 41 (41.8) 0.38
Positive end-expiratory pressure, cmH2O 7.3 ± 3.0 6.8 ± 2.5 0.59
PaO2/FiO2, mmHg, mean ± SE 175.4 ± 6.9 172.4 ± 6.7 0.87
Source of infection, n (%)
 Pneumonia 49 (50) 51 (52) 0.89
 Urinary tract infection 18 (18.4) 19 (19.2) 1.0
 Skin and soft tissue infection 15 (15.3) 12 (12.1) 0.54
 Intra-abdominal infection 15 (15.3) 7 (7.1) 0.07
 Hemoculture-positive 28 (28.6) 28 (28.3) 1.0
Number of comorbidities, median (range) 2 (0–5) 2 (0–5) 1.0
 Hypertension 44 (44.9) 43 (43.4) 0.89
 Diabetes mellitus 45 (45.9) 37 (37.4) 0.25
 Coronary artery disease 18 (18.4) 17 (17.2) 0.85
 Stroke 21 (21.4) 14 (14.1) 0.2
 Chronic kidney disease 12 (12.2) 12 (12.1) 1.0
 Chronic lung disease 11 (11.2) 11 (11.1) 1.0
 Cancer and/or immunosuppression 18 (18.4) 26 (26.3) 0.23
  1. Abbreviations: APACHE II Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II, ARDS Acute respiratory distress syndrome, FiO 2 Fraction of inspired oxygen, PaO 2 Partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment
  2. Unless specified otherwise, data are reported as mean ± SD
  3. aFisher’s exact test and the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test were used for categorical and continuous variables, respectively
  4. bAPACHE II score, a severity-determining score, ranges from 0 to 71. The higher scores represent more severe disease
  5. cSOFA score ranges from 0 to 24. The higher scores represent more organ failure
  6. dThe Lung Injury Score ranges from 0 to 4. Scores of 0.1–2.5 indicate mild to moderate lung injury; scores >2.5 indicate severe lung injury
  7. eDiagnosis of ARDS according to the Berlin Definition 2012