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Table 1 Characteristics of studies included in the meta-analysis

From: Does ventilator-associated event surveillance detect ventilator-associated pneumonia in intensive care units? A systematic review and meta-analysis

Reference Region Units (n) ICU type Baseline period Population VAE criteria VAP criteria Design Sample size Adjusted confounders
Total (n) VAE VAP
[17]a USA 7 MICU, SICU, CICU 2011.11–2013.05 Consecutive mechanical ventilation episodes from collaborative units undergoing daily SAT/SBT CDC/NHSN definition NA Interrupted time series analysis 3425 293 NA Age, sex, reason for intubation, and SOFA score
[17]b USA 6 MICU, SICU, CICU 2011.11–2013.05 Consecutive mechanical ventilation episodes from surveillance-only units not undergoing daily SAT/SBT CDC/NHSN definition NA Interrupted time series analysis 1739 75 NA Age, sex, reason for intubation, and SOFA score
[18]a Belgium 1 ICU 2012.01–2013.03 Adult patients ventilated for ≥2 calendar days from groups undergoing subglottic secretion suctioning CDC/NHSN definition CDC/NHSN criteria and quantitative culture results of specimens Randomized controlled trial 170 37 15 NA
[18]b Belgium 1 ICU 2012.01–2013.03 Adult patients ventilated for ≥2 calendar days from groups not undergoing subglottic secretion suctioning CDC/NHSN definition CDC/NHSN criteria and quantitative culture results of specimens Randomized controlled trial 182 41 32 NA
[19] China 1 ICU 2010.04–2014.02 VAP patients CDC/NHSN definition CDC/NHSN criteria Retrospective cohort 165 55 165 NA
[20] USA 1 SICU, MICU 2013.01–2013.12 Adult patients ventilated for ≥2 calendar days CDC/NHSN definition CDC/NHSN criteria and quantitative culture of specimens Prospective cohort 1209 67 84 NA
[21] France Multiple centres ICU 1996.11–2012.10 Adult patients ventilated for ≥5 calendar days from French multicentre OUTCOMEREA database Adapted definition (≥2 day rise in range of PEEP or a decreasing PaO2/FiO2 ratio by >50 mm Hg with the same level of PEEP or by >100 mm Hg whatever the level of PEEP) CDC/NHSN criteria Inception cohort 3028 2331 816 NA
[22] USA 1 MICU 2012.12–2013.04 Adult patients requiring mechanical ventilation CDC/NHSN definition NA Retrospective cohort 257 19 NA NA
[23] USA 1 SICU 2012.09–2013.08 All intubated patients admitted to SICU CDC/NHSN definition Criteria based on clinical pulmonary infection score (CPIS) and quantitative culture of specimens Prospective screening test 704 37 121 NA
[24] USA 1 MICU, SICU 2008.07–2013.03 Adult patients ventilated for ≥4 calendar days continuously CDC/NHSN definition CDC/NHSN criteria Retrospective cohort 3302 675 30c Race, comorbidities, emergent admissions
[25] USA 1 MICU, SICU, CICU, Neuro-ICU 2009.01–2012.04 Adult patients who were managed with mechanical ventilation CDC/NHSN definition CDC/NHSN criteria Prospective cohort 8408 387 83 APACHE score, type of ICU
[26] England 1 MICU, SICU,CICU, Neuro-ICU 2011.01–2011.12 Patients on mechanical ventilation in ICU CDC/NHSN definition NA Retrospective nested case–control 2990 172 NA Age, sex, ICU type, Charlson score, and time to VAC onset
[27] Netherland 2 ICU 2011.01–2012.07 Adult patients who had received ≥2 consecutive days of mechanical ventilation CDC/NHSN definition CDC/NHSN criteria and quantitative culture of specimens Prospective cohort 2080 152 3 Age, sex, APACHE score, admission type, and hospital
[28] England 1 ICU 2006.07–2013.12 All episodes of invasive mechanical ventilation lasting ≥3 calendar days CDC/NHSN definition NA Retrospective cohort 9603 1308 NA Age, race, sex, calendar year, ICU type, comorbidities, initial laboratory values, medications, procedures
[29] England 1 MICU, SICU, CICU, Neuro-ICU 2006.01–2011.12 Adult patients initiated on mechanical ventilation CDC/NHSN definition NA Retrospective cohort 20356 1056 NA Age, sex, unit type, Charlson score, use of vasopressors on the day of intubation, platelet count, total bilirubin, albumin, creatinine, and alanine aminotransferase level
[30] Canada 1 ICU 2011.07–2012.09 VAP patients received at least 72 h broad-spectrum antimicrobials CDC/NHSN definition CDC/NHSN criteria Retrospective cohort 81 45 81 NA
[31] Canada, USA 11 MICU, SICU, Trauma ICU 2007.06–2009.12 Adult patients who met the inclusion criteria of age ≥16 years and who were mechanically ventilated for ≥48 h CDC/NHSN definition CDC/NHSN criteria Interrupted time series analysis 1320 139 148 NA
[32] Australia 1 MICU, SICU 2009.05–2011.01 All patients aged >18 years who were on mechanical ventilation for >48 h Adapted definition (increases in FiO2 by ≥15 % or PEEP by ≥2.5 cm H2O lasting ≥2 days after stable or decreasing FiO2 or PEEP lasting ≥ 2 days.) NA Retrospective cohort 1657 153 NA NA
[33] USA 3 MICU, SICU 2006–2007 All patients aged >18 years who were on mechanical ventilation for >48 h Adapted definition (increases in FiO2 by ≥15 % or positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) by ≥2.5 cm H2O lasting ≥2 days after stable or decreasing FiO2 or PEEP lasting ≥ 2 days.) CDC/NHSN criteria Retrospective nested case–control 597 135 55 Age, sex, hospital, unit type, and Charlson comorbidity index
[34] USA 1 ICU 2009.07–2013.12 Patients at least 18 years old, admitted to the ICU after trauma, required endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilator support for at least 48 h, and received a minimum of 1 unit of packed red blood cell transfusion during their mechanical ventilator support CDC/NHSN definition CDC/NHSN criteria Retrospective cohort 216 31 64 NA
  1. a,bStudy that ​comprised 2 separate groups within one article. cPatients with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) were limited to four ICUs among all nine ICUs in the included study. NHSN National Healthcare Safety Network, MICU medical intensive care unit, SICU surgical intensive care unit, CICU cardiac intensive care unit, VAP ventilator-associated pneumonia, VAE ventilator-associated events (including ventilator-associated conditions (VAC), infection-related VAC (IVAC), possible VAP, and probable VAP), SAT/SBT spontaneous awakening trials/spontaneous breathing trials, PEEP positive end-expiratory pressure, FiO 2 fraction of inspired oxygen, CDC Centers for Disease Control, NHSN National Healthcare Safety Network, SOFA sequential organ failure assessment, PaO 2 partial pressure of oxygen, NA not available