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Table 4 Univariate analysis of risk factors for poor neurological outcome in resuscitated, comatose out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients

From: Urine biomarkers give early prediction of acute kidney injury and outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

  Good neurological outcome (n = 99) PNO (n = 96) Risk factor for PNO Crude OR (95 % CI) for PNO p value
Baseline data
 Age, years 59.2 ± 16.4 61.0 ± 14.7 Age ≥60 years 1.32 (0.75–2.32) 0.339
 Weight, kga (n = 166) 83.0 (75.0–93.3) 85.0 (75.0–90.0) Weight ≥85 kg 1.28 (0.69–2.36) 0.428
 Male sex 87 (87.9) 78 (81.3) Female sex 1.67 (0.76–3.69) 0.200
 Witnessed CAa (n = 194) 94 (95.9) 75 (78.1) Unwitnessed CA 6.58 (2.17–20.00) <0.001
 Bystander CPR 86 (86.9) 85 (88.5) Not bystander CPR 0.86 (0.36–2.02) 0.722
 ROSC time, mina (n = 158) 22.5 (12.0–29.0) 30.0 (23.0–40.0) Time to ROSC ≥25 min 3.16 (1.63–6.10) 0.001
 Initial VF/VTa (n = 193) 82 (83.7) 46 (48.4) Not initial VF/VT 5.46 (2.79–10.67) <0.001
 SAPS II, score 67.8 ± 10.4 73.1 ± 9.9 SAPS II score ≥69 2.01 (1.13–3.56) 0.017
Admission day
 Diuresis, L/day 2.03 (1.77–2.86) 1.81 (1.43–2.50) Diuresis <1.93 L/day 1.98 (1.12–3.50) 0.018
 Fluid balance, L/day 3.97 (2.58–5.64) 4.80 (3.46–6.45) Fluid balance ≥4.45 L/day 2.07 (1.17–3.66) 0.012
 S-Creatinine, μmol/L 96.0 (84.0–113.0) 107.5 (94.0–139.3) S-Creatinine ≥101 μmol/L 1.90 (1.08–3.36) 0.026
 S-Urea; mmol/L 6.3 (5.3–7.8) 7.1 (5.7–9.6) S-Urea ≥6.7 mmol/L 1.90 (1.08–3.36) 0.026
 B-HCO3 , mmol/L 20.6 (18.9–22.6) 19.0 (17.1–21.2) B-HCO3 <19.0 mmol/L 2.58 (1.42–4.71) 0.002
 B-BE, mmol/L –5.6 (–8.2 to –3.6) –8.5 (–12.0- –6.0) B-BE < –7.0 mmol/L 4.18 (2.30–7.68) <0.001
 B-Lactate, mmol/L 2.8 (1.6–5.4) 5.1 (3.1–9.1) B-Lactate ≥4.1 mmol/L 2.68 (1.50–4.77) 0.001
 SOFA, score 10.0 (9.0–11.0) 11.0 (10.0–12.0) SOFA score ≥10 3.66 (1.85–7.24) <0.001
Urine biomarkers (n = 195 at admission and n = 164 at day 3)
 Admission cystatin C, ng/mL 166 (55–411) 612 (141–2420) Admission cystatin C ≥291 ng/mL 3.33 (1.85–6.00) <0.001
 Day 3 cystatin C, ng/mLa 45 (17–113) 137 (32–595) Day 3 cystatin C ≥59 ng/mL 3.22 (1.69–6.13) <0.001
 Admission NGAL, ng/mL 91 (42–315) 497 (144–1286) Admission NGAL ≥219 ng/mL 4.01 (2.21–7.27) <0.001
 Day 3 NGAL, ng/mLa 61 (26–146) 213 (95–755) Day 3 NGAL ≥110 ng/mL 4.21 (2.18–8.12) <0.001
 Admission TIMP-2 × IGFBP7 0.25 (0.04–1.03) 0.43 (0.12–2.15) Admission TIMP-2 × IGFBP7 ≥ 0.36 1.74 (0.99–3.08) 0.053
 Day 3 TIMP-2 × IGFBP7a 0.14 (0.07–0.30) 0.23 (0.10–0.61) Day 3 TIMP-2 × IGFBP7 ≥ 0.18 1.73 (0.93–3.22) 0.084
Outcome
 Hospital RRT 2 (2.0) 6 (6.3) Treatment with RRT 3.28 (0.64–16.39) 0.137
 AKI within 3 days 29 (29.3) 59 (61.5) Presence of AKI 3.85 (2.12–6.94) <0.001
 Dead at 6 months 0 (0.0) 88 (91.7) Death   n.a.
  1. aData from some patients are missing
  2. Categorical data are presented as number (percent), continuous data with skewed distribution as median (interquartile range), and continuous data with normal distribution or mean (± standard deviation)
  3. Presented p values are from univariate Pearson’s Chi square analysis
  4. AKI acute kidney injury, B whole blood, BE base excess, CA cardiac arrest, CI confidence interval, CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation, HCO 3 bicarbonate, IGFBP7 insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7, n.a. not applicable, NGAL neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, OR odds ratio, PNO poor neurological outcome defined as cerebral performance category 3–5, ROSC return of spontaneous circulation, RRT renal replacement therapy, S serum, SAPS simplified acute physiology score, SOFA sequential organ failure assessment, TIMP-2 tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2, VF/VT ventricular fibrillation/ventricular tachycardia