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Table 4 Conditions that are associated with unfavorable outcome

From: Dramatic reduction of mortality in pneumococcal meningitis

  GOS 5 GOS <5 OR (95 % CI) P value 2003–2015
Gender (male/female) 7/16 12/20 1.37 (0.43–4.29) 0.775
Age (median ± SD) 60 ± 16.3 63 ± 12.6   0.152
Direct admission to tertiary center 56.5 % 18.8 % 0.18 (0.05–0.59) 0.005
Sinusitis 56.5 % 71.9 % 1.97 (0.63–6.07) 0.2644
Chronic underlying disease 21.7 % 53.1 % 4.08 (1.21–13.70) 0.026
Fever on admission 78.3 % 68.8 % 0.68 (0.20–2.40) 0.755
Neck stiffness on admission 91.3 % 75.0 % 0.38 (0.063–2.10) 0.442
Symptoms of meningitis before admission in days (median ± SD) 1 ± 2.65 1 ± 1.13 - 0.734
GCS on admission (median; minimum, maximum) 12; 3, 15 10; 3, 15 - 0.006
FND on admission 39.1 % 18.8 % 0.36 (0.11–1.22) 0.128
Leucocytes in serum (G/l) on admission (mean ± SD) 17.8 ± 7.74 18.67 ± 8.45 - 0.718
CRP on admission (mean ± SD) 14.73 ± 9.42 23.83 ± 11.54 - 0.007
Leucocytes in CSF/μl on admission (mean ± SD) 3623 ± 3898 3237 ± 4934 - 0.460
Protein in CSF in mg/dl on admission (mean ± SD) 432 ± 417 697 ± 107 - 0.094
Glucose in CSF in mg/dl on admission (mean ± SD) 48 ± 46 10 ± 16 - <0.001
  1. SD standard deviation, GCS Glasgow Coma Score, FND focal neurologic deficit, CRP C-reactive protein, CSF cerebrospinal fluid