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Table 2 Pediatric studies of the microcirculation using orthogonal polarization spectral or sidestream dark field

From: The vulnerable microcirculation in the critically ill pediatric patient

Study N Age group Technique/site Disease Intervention Outcome
Top et al. 2010 [71] 45 0–3 years OPS/buccal - - FCD decreases after the first week of life
Top et al. 2011 [48] 18 0–15 years OPS/buccal Septic shock - FCD does not differ on day 1, non-survivors have persistently low FCD
Top et al. 2011 [72] 8 0–3 years OPS/buccal Respiratory failure iNO iNO increases FCD without altering macrocirculatory parameters
Paize et al. 2012 [117] 60 0–6 years SDF/sublingual MCD - FCD is decreased at admission; however, it increases when MCD resolves. HI is correlated with duration of ventilation
Buijs et al. 2014 [49] 20 0–16 years SDF/buccal Cardiac arrest TH FCD and flow are impaired during TH; however, they recover after re-warming. Severe impairment was associated with mortality
Nussbaum et al. 2015 [85] 40 0–3 years SDF/ear Cardiac surgery/catheterization - Transient reduction in MFI and PVD after cardiac surgery with and without cardiopulmonary bypass
Schinagl et al. 2016 [86] 37 Unknown SDF/buccal Anemia Blood Tx Transfusion increased TVD with decreased RBC velocity, particularly during infection
  1. FCD functional capillary density, HI heterogeneity index, iNO inhaled nitric oxide, MCD meningococcal disease, MFI microvascular flow index, OPS orthogonal polarization spectral imaging, PVD perfused vessel density, RBC red blood cell, SDF sidestream dark field imaging, TH therapeutic hypothermia, TVD total vessel density, Tx transfusion