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Table 1 Demographics, preoperative, operative and postoperative characteristics of the patient population according to tertiles of preoperative growth-differentiation factor-15

From: Preoperative plasma growth-differentiation factor-15 for prediction of acute kidney injury in patients undergoing cardiac surgery

  GDF tertile 1 GDF tertile 2 GDF tertile 3 Total P value
N 392 392 392 1176  
Male 282 (71.9 %) 272 (69.4 %) 256 (65.3 %) 810 (68.9 %) 0.129
Age (years) 59 (50/67) 69 (63/74) 72 (67/77) 68 (50/74) <0.001
NYHA I 161 (41.1 %) 137 (34.9 %) 113 (28.8 %) 411 (34.9 %) 0.002
NYHA II 104 (26.5 %) 97 (24.7 %) 87 (22.2 %) 288 (24.5 %) 0.365
NYHA III 111 (28.3 %) 138 (35.2 %) 146 (37.2 %) 395 (33.6 %) 0.021
NYHA IV 15 (3.8 %) 19 (4.8 %) 44 (11.2 %) 78 (6.6 %) <0.001
Additive Euroscore 3 (2/6) 5 (3/7) 7 (5/8) 5 (3/7) <0.001
GDF-15 (ng/ml) 0.643 (0.535/0.730) 0.991 (0.914/1.114) 1.731 (1.438/2.329) 0.989 (0.729/1.435) <0.001
NTproBNP (pg|ml) 187.8 (74.4/495.0) 427.9 (155.4/900.6) 1044.6 (383.4/2528.7) 434.5 (137.8/1139.3) <0.001
hsTNT (pg/ml) 6.3 (3.0/11.1) 11.4 (6.6/18.8) 20.4 (12.0/38.0) 11.4 (5.6/21.5) <0.001
ScO2minox (%) 68 (63/72) 65 (60/70) 63 (57/67) 65 (60/70) <0.001
Diabetes mellitus (n (%)) 152 (38.8 %) 250 (63.8 %) 305 (77.8 %) 707 (60.1 %) <0.001
LVEF 1 (n (%)) 6 (1.5 %) 10 (2.6 %) 24 (6.1 %) 40 (3.4 %) <0.001
LVEF 2 (n (%)) 57 (14.5 %) 74 (18.9 %) 102 (26.0 %) 233 (19.8 %) <0.001
LVEF 3 (n (%)) 328 (36.4 %) 307 (34.1 %) 266 (29.5 %) 901 (76.8 %) <0.001
Reoperation (n (%)) 28 (7.1 %) 35 (8.9 %) 48 (12.2 %) 111 (9.4 %) 0.046
Creatinine (μmol/l) 73.9 (65.1/83.6) 82.7 (68.6/93.3) 93.3 (76.6/117.0) 81.0 (68.6 /96.8) <0.001
eGFR (MDRD) (ml/min/m2) 94.2 (80.1/110.5) 80.7 (66.8/95.1) 66.2 (49.5/83.4) 80.9 (64.7/98.9)) <0.001
Hemoglobin (g/l) 139 (130/148) 135 (125/145) 129 (115/140) 135 (124/144) <0.001
Peripheral vascular disease (n (%)) 45 (11.5 %) 45 (11.5 %) 47 (12.0 %) 137 (11.6 %) 0.967
CPB time (minutes) 108 (86/144) 109 (84/135) 114 (92/149) 110 (88/142) 0.027
DHCA (n (%)) 19 (4.8 %) 8 (2.0 %) 3 (0.8 %) 30 (2.6 %) 0.001
IOP hemofiltration (n (%)) 12 (3.0 %) 12 (3.0 %) 36 (9.2 %) 60 (5.1 %) <0.001
Isolated CABG (n (%)) 173 (44.1 %) 199 (50.8 %) 164 (41.8 %) 536 (45.6 %) 0.033
Mitral valve surgery (n (%)) 36 (9.2 %) 55 (14.0 %) 83 (21.2 %) 174 (14.8 %) <0.001
Aortic valve surgery (n (%)) 161 (41.1 %) 133 (33.9 %) 161 (41.1 %) 455 (38.7 %) 0.06
MAZE (n (%)) 19 (4.8 %) 31 (7.9 %) 53 (13.5 %) 103 <0.001
HDU LOS (days) 2 (2/4) 3 (2/5) 4 (2/7) 3 (2/5) <0.001
AKI 1 37 (9.4 %) 53 (13.5 %) 85 (21.7 %) 175 (14.9 %) <0.001
AKI 2 3 (0.76 %) 1 (0.26 %) 2 (0.51 %) 6 (0.51 %) 0.65
AKI 3 4 (1.0 %) 17 (4.3 %) 56 (14.3 %) 77 (6.54 %) <0.001
Renal replacement therapy 4 (1 %) 17 (4.3 %) 55 (14.3 %) 77 (6.45 %) <0.001
30-day mortality 2 (0.5 %) 4 (1 %) 17 (4.4 %) 23 (1.96 %) <0.001
  1. NYHA New York Heart Association grade of heart failure, NTproBNP N-terminal pro-hormone of the B-type natriuretic peptide, hsTNT high-sensitivity troponine-T, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction (1: <30 % or severely reduced; 2: 30–50 % or moderately reduced; 3: ≥50 % or normal), MDRD creatinine clearance according to the Modifications of Diet in Renal Disease formula, CPB cardiopulmonary bypass time, DHCA deep hypothermic circulatory arrest, IOP-hemofiltration intraoperative hemofiltration during CPB, CABG coronary artery bypass graft, MAZE MAZE - procedure; HDU LOS high-dependency unit time (intensive care and intermediate care unit), AKI 1 to AKI 3 acute kidney injury according to KDIGO creatinine criteria