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Table 3 Causative pathogens in all unmatched and matched patients with pneumonia stratified according to HIV status

From: Impact of HIV infection on the presentation, outcome and host response in patients admitted to the intensive care unit with sepsis; a case control study

  Unmatched patients Matched patients
HIV-positive (n = 30) HIV-negative (n = 1078) P HIV-negative (n = 90) P
Gram-positive bacteria (%) 8 (26.7) 216 (20) 0.52 18 (20.0) 0.44
Streptococcus pneumoniae (%) 4 (13.3) 71 (6.6) 0.27 5 (5.6) 0.22
Streptococcus species (%) 0 19 (1.8) 0.67 3 (3.3) 0.56
Staphylococcus aureus (%) 4 (13.3) 99 (9.2) 0.52 6 (6.7) 0.27
 Other Gram-positive bacteria (%) 0 27 (2.5) 0.62 4 (4.4) 0.58
Gram-negative bacteria (%) 3 (10.0) 349 (32.4) 0.0075 36 (40.0) 0.011
Haemophilus influenzae (%) 0 70 (6.5) 0.26 9 (10) 0.11
Escherichia coli (%) 1 (3.3) 65 (6) 0.71 5 (5.6) 1
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (%) 0 64 (5.9) 0.25 6 (6.7) 0.33
Klebsiella pneumoniae (%) 1 (3.3) 29 (2.7) 1 3 (3.3) 1
Enterobacter cloacae (%) 0 25 (2.3) 0.63 1 (1.1) 1
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (%) 1 (3.3) 11 (1) 0.28 1 (1.1) 0.44
 Other Gram-negative bacteria (%) 0 85 (7.9) 0.18 11 (12.2) 0.06
Yeast/fungi (%) 6 (20.0) 84 (7.8) 0.036 18 (20.0) 1
Aspergillus species (%) 1 (3.3) 40 (3.7) 1 9 (10) 0.44
Pneumocystis jirovecii (%) 4 (13.3) 15 (1.4) 0.004 5 (5.6) 0.22
 Other yeasts or fungi (%) 1 (3.3) 29 (2.7) 1 4 (4.4) 1
Viruses (%) 3 (10.0) 70 (6.5) 0.72 10 (11.1) 1
 Influenza (%) 0 38 (3.5) 0.41 8 (8.9) 0.19
 Cytomegalovirus (%) 2 (6.7) 5 (0.5) 0.019 0 0.049
 Other viruses (%) 1 (3.3) 27 (2.5) 1 2 (2.2) 1
Atypical mycobacteria (%) 1 (3.3) a 1 (0.1) b 0.053 0 0.24
Unknown (%) 15 (50) 500 (46.4) 1 30 (33.3) 0.10
  1. Results are presented as number (%). Percentages represent the proportion of pneumonia cases caused by the particular pathogen. Multiple causative pathogens were isolated in some patients with pneumonia. a Mycobacterium avium. b Mycobacterium xenopi