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Table 1 Baseline characteristics and outcomes for all diabetic patients and according to peak blood glucose level

From: Prevalence of ketosis, ketonuria, and ketoacidosis during liberal glycemic control in critically ill patients with diabetes: an observational study

Characteristic All patients Peak BGL ≥10 mmol/l Peak BGL <10 mmol/l P value
Number of patients 60 (100) 46 (77) 14 (23)  
Age, years 66 (60, 74) 65 (56, 71) 74 (65, 80) 0.02
Female sex, n (%) 17 (28) 15 (33) 2 (14) 0.31
Weight, kg (n = 58) 84 (74, 100) 84 (78, 104) 83 (74, 100) 0.39
BMI, kg/m2 (n = 40) 31 (27, 34) 32 (28, 35) 28 (24, 31) 0.11
APACHE III score 60 (46, 76) 59 (46, 75) 62 (48, 79) 0.71
Type 1 diabetes, n (%) 3 (5) 3 (7) 0  
Type 2 diabetes, n (%) 57 (95) 43 (93) 14 (100) 1.00
Type 2 diabetes treatment, n (%)     0.007
 Diet only 8 (13) 5 (11) 6 (43)  
 Oral agent(s) only 25 (42) 18 (39) 7 (50)  
 Insulin only 11 (18) 10 (22) 1 (7)  
 Insulin + oral agent(s) 13 (22) 13 (28) 0  
Non-operative admission diagnosis, n (%)     0.59
 Cardiovascular 6 (10) 5 (26) 1 (14)  
 Sepsis 6 (10) 5 (26) 1 (14)  
 Respiratory 6 (10) 3 (16) 3 (43)  
 Renal/metabolic 6 (10) 5 (26) 1 (14)  
 Other 2 (3) 1 (5) 1 (14)  
Operative admission diagnosis, n (%)     0.09
 Cardiovascular 25 (42) 20 (74) 5 (71)  
 Gastrointestinal 6 (10) 6 (22) 1 (14)  
 Other 3 (5) 1 (4) 1 (14)  
HbA1c on ICU admission, % 6.7 (6.0, 7.7) 7.0 (6.2, 7.8) 6.2 (5.9, 6.5) 0.009
Blood glucose on ICU admission, mmol/l 9.3 (7.6, 12) 10 (7.8, 13) 8.1 (7.4, 9.0) 0.01
Blood ketones on ICU admission, mmol/l 0.3 (0.1, 0.8) 0.3 (0.1, 0.8) 0.4 (0.2, 0.6) 0.99
Ketosis on ICU admission, n (%) 23 (39) 17 (38) 6 (43) 0.12
Ketonuria on ICU admission, n (%) (n = 57) 8 (14) 6 (13) 2 (17) 0.09
Lactate on ICU admission, mmol/l 1.6 (1.1, 2.3) 1.7 (1.2, 2.7) 1.2, (1.0, 2.0) 0.06
Hematocrit on ICU admission, % 27 (25, 31) 27 (25, 29) 32 (27, 35) 0.07
Alkalosis on ICU admissiona, n (%) 7 (12) 7 (15) 0  
Catecholamine infusion on ICU admission, n (%) 23 (38) 21 (46) 2 (14) 0.06
Nutrition on ICU admission, n (%) 6 (10) 6 (13) 0  
Acute liver failure, n (%) 3 (5) 2 (4) 1 (7) 0.56
Chronic alcohol abuse, n (%) 4 (7) 3 (7) 1 (7) 1.00
Acute alcohol intoxication, n (%) 1 (2) 1 (2) 0  
ICU length of stay, days 3.7 (2.2, 6.2) 3.7 (2.3, 6.9) 3.4 (2.1, 3.8) 0.26
Hospital length of stay, days 11 (6.7, 24) 11 (7.2, 23) 13 (5.4, 24) 0.86
ICU mortality, n (%) 5 (8) 4 (9) 1 (7) 0.85
Hospital mortality, n (%) 6 (10) 5 (11) 1 (7) 0.68
  1. Values are median (IQR) or n (%)
  2. BGL blood glucose level, BMI body mass index, APACHE Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, ICU intensive care unit
  3. apH >7.45