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Table 1 Characteristics of the included studies for helmet ventilation in the meta-analysis

From: Noninvasive ventilation with helmet versus control strategy in patients with acute respiratory failure: a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled studies

Study Study design Patients Experimental strategy Control strategy Sample size Outcomes
Helmet Control
Antonelli 2002 [14] Prospective pilot case control Patients with hypoxemic ARF without COPD Helmet PSV Facial mask PSV 33 66 Gas exchange, respiratory rate, intubation rate, length of NIV, level of pressure support, ICU stay and hospital mortality, complications
Pisani 2015 [15] Multicenter RCT AECOPD with hypercapnic ARF Helmet PSV Oronasal mask PSV 39 41 Respiratory rate, dysponea score, intubation rate, level of pressure support, hemodynamics, complications
Brambilla 2014 [16] Multicenter RCT Pneumonia with hypoxemic ARF Helmet CPAP Venturi mask Oxygen therapy 40 41 Gas exchangea, intubation rate, hospital stay and mortality, complications
Principi 2004 [17] Historical case control Hematological malignancy with hypoxemic ARF Helmet CPAP Facial mask CPAP 17 17 Gas exchange, intubation rate, PTS, length of NIV, complications
Antonelli 2004 [20] Historical case control AECOPD with hypercapnic ARF Helmet PSV Facial mask PSV 33 33 Gas exchange, respiratory rate, intubation rate, length of NIV, level of pressure support, hemodynamics, ICU stay, ICU and hospital mortality, complications
Ali 2011 [29] RCT AECOPD with hypercapnic ARF Helmet PSV Facial mask PSV 15 15 Gas exchange, respiratory rate, hemodynamics, ICU stay, PTS, intubation rate, complications
Özlem 2015 [30] RCT AECOPD with hypercapnic ARF Helmet PSV Facial mask PSV 25 23 Gas exchangea, respiratory rateb, PTS, complications, ICU stayb, length of NIV, hospital mortality
Antonaglia 2011 [31] RCT AECOPD with hypercapnic ARF Helmet PSV Facial mask PSV 20 20 Gas exchange, respiratory rateb, intolerance to the interface, length of ICU stayb, time of ventilator assistance
Patel 2016 [32] RCT ARF due to ARDS Helmet PSV Facial mask PSV 44 39 Respiratory rateb, intubation rate, length of NIV, level of pressure support, ICU and hospital stayb, hospital and 90d mortality, complications, ventilator-free days
Tonnelier 2003 [33] Historical case control Cardiogenic pulmonary edema with hypoxemic ARF Helmet CPAP Facial mask CPAP 11 11 Glasgow coma scale, gas exchange, respiratory rate, complications, hospital mortality
Rocco 2004 [34] Historical case control Immunocompromised with hypoxemic ARF Helmet PSV Facial mask PSV 19 19 Gas exchange, respiratory rate, intubation rate, length of NIV, level of pressure support, ICU stay, ICU and hospital mortality, complications
  1. ARF acute respiratory failure, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, PSV pressure support ventilation, NIV noninvasive ventilation, ICU intensive care unit, AECOPD exacerbation of COPD, CPAP continuous positive airway pressure, PTS patient tolerance scale, RCT randomized control trail, ARDS acute respiratory distress syndrome
  2. aOutcome presented in figure form
  3. bOutcome presented as interquartile range