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Table 4 Evolution of total hepatic blood flow and perfusion parameters at different time points

From: Effects of dexmedetomidine and esmolol on systemic hemodynamics and exogenous lactate clearance in early experimental septic shock

Control-DEX       
Variable Group A B C D p a
SpO2 (%) Control 81 ± 11 82 ± 7.1 78 ± 7.8 68 ± 11 a
DEX 87 ± 6.0 85 ± 7.0 82 ± 8.3 78 ± 16  
ShO2 (%) Control 75 ± 7.5 79 ± 5.2 72 ± 4.6 69 ± 14  
DEX 76 ± 5.9 76 ± 6.1 74 ± 8.1 68 ± 17 a
Portal vein lactate (mmol/L) Control 2.0 ± 0.5 4.2 ± 1.4 6.4 ± 1.0 8.1 ± 1.1 a
DEX 1.7 ± 0.5 2.9 ± 1.5 3.7 ± 1.8* 6.2 ± 0.9* a
Hepatic vein lactate (mmol/L) Control 1.7 ± 0.5 4.4 ± 1.7 6.0 ± 1.1 7.3 ± 1.2 a
DEX 1.4 ± 0.6 2.8 ± 1.6 3.4 ± 0.4* 5.8 ± 0.8* a
Total hepatic blood flow (ml/kg/min) Control 30 ± 8.8 36 ± 5.4 28 ± 7.7 25 ± 7.9 a
DEX 27 ± 8.1 34 ± 5.6 23 ± 3.9 21 ± 4.9  
Control-ESM       
Variable Group A B C D p a
SpO2 (%) Control 81 ± 11 82 ± 7.1 78 ± 7.8 68 ± 11 a
ESM 80 ± 6.1 79 ± 8.1 69 ± 12 75 ± 12  
ShO2 (%) Control 75 ± 7.5 79 ± 5.2 72 ± 4.6 69 ± 14  
ESM 70 ± 11 70 ± 16 68 ± 12 62 ± 23  
Portal vein lactate (mmol/L) Control 2.0 ± 0.5 4.2 ± 1.4 6.4 ± 1.0 8.1 ± 1.1 a
ESM 1.1 ± 0.4* 2.4 ± 0.7* 2.9 ± 0.9* 4.0 ± 1.1* a
Hepatic vein lactate (mmol/L) Control 1.7 ± 0.5 4.4 ± 1.7 6.0 ± 1.1 7.3 ± 1.2 a
ESM 1.2 ± 0.4* 2.2 ± 0.6* 2.8 ± 1.0* 3.6 ± 1.4* a
Total hepatic blood flow (ml/kg/min) Control 30 ± 8.8 36 ± 5.4 28 ± 7.7 25 ± 7.9 a
ESM 39 ± 8.0 37 ± 14 32 ± 13 28 ± 11  
  1. Values are presented as mean ± standard deviation (SD)
  2. DEX dexmedetomidine, SpO 2 portal vein oxygen saturation, ShO 2 hepatic vein oxygen saturation, ESM esmolol
  3. p < 0.05 considered as significant
  4. aSignificant changes over time within groups (comparison made with Friedman test and post hoc Bonferroni correction)
  5. *Significant difference between control group and DEX or ESM groups, respectively at the same time point (comparison made with Mann-Whitney U test)