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Table 3 Evolution of serum lactate, muscle lactate, epinephrine levels, and exogenous lactate clearance at different time points

From: Effects of dexmedetomidine and esmolol on systemic hemodynamics and exogenous lactate clearance in early experimental septic shock

Control-DEX       
Variable Group A B C D p a
Arterial lactate (mmol/L) Control 2.0 ± 0.5 5.1 ± 1.8 8.1 ± 1.7 9.2 ± 1.8 a
DEX 1.7 ± 0.5 3.4 ± 1.9 4.1 ± 1.9* 6.4 ± 3.1 a
Muscle lactate (mmol/L) Control 3.8 ± 2.0 4.6 ± 1.3 5.1 ± 1.3 6.9 ± 3.5 a
DEX 5.2 ± 4.4 4.9 ± 2.1 6.7 ± 3.6 6.7 ± 2.4  
Epinephrine levels (ng/ml) Control 5.8 ± 4.3 5.6 ± 4.3 6.9 ± 4.2 7.3 ± 1.4  
DEX 4.1 ± 1.8 3.2 ± 1.5 3.9 ± 3.6 4.6 ± 1.3*  
Lactate clearance (ml/kg/min) Control     2.43 ± 1.14  
DEX     6.97 ± 1.60*  
Control-ESM       
Variable Group A B C D p a
Arterial lactate (mmol/L) Control 2.0 ± 0.5 5.1 ± 1.8 8.1 ± 1.7 9.2 ± 1.8 a
  ESM 1.6 ± 0.4 3.7 ± 0.9 3.6 ± 1.0* 4.5 ± 1.1* a
Muscle lactate (mmol/L) Control 3.8 ± 2.0 4.6 ± 1.3 5.1 ± 1.3 6.9 ± 3.5 a
ESM 3.3 ± 1.7 3.6 ± 3.2 5.0 ± 3.8 5.4 ± 2.6  
Epinephrine levels (ng/ml) Control 5.8 ± 4.3 5.6 ± 4.3 6.9 ± 4.2 7.3 ± 1.4  
ESM 4.8 ± 3.6 5.8 ± 7.1 9.0 ± 3.2 7.1 ± 2.4  
Lactate clearance (ml/kg/min) Control     2.43 ± 1.14  
ESM     7.32 ± 2.20*  
  1. Values are presented as mean ± standard deviation (SD)
  2. DEX dexmedetomidine, ESM esmolol
  3. p < 0.05 considered as significant
  4. aSignificant changes over time within groups (comparison made with Friedman test and post hoc Bonferroni correction)
  5. *Significant difference between control group and DEX or ESM groups, respectively at the same time point (comparison made with Mann-Whitney U test)