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Table 2 Comparison of hemodynamic variables between LPS-control and LPS-ESM groups along the study period

From: Effects of dexmedetomidine and esmolol on systemic hemodynamics and exogenous lactate clearance in early experimental septic shock

Variable Group A B C D p a
HR (bpm) Control 127 ± 25 143 ± 16 137 ± 15 125 ± 20  
ESM 128 ± 19 133 ± 17 109 ± 12* 105 ± 9* a
MAP (mmHg) Control 88 ± 14 67 ± 14 59 ± 5 61 ± 7 a
ESM 90 ± 18 70 ± 16 60 ± 8 76 ± 6 a
CO (ml/kg/min) Control 78.3 ± 12.7 90.6 ± 26.4 80.0 ± 29.5 75.1 ± 23.1  
ESM 69.0 ± 17 101 ± 32.0 84.0 ± 29.6 82.7 ± 28.4  
MPAP (mmHg) Control 14 ± 2 20 ± 4 23 ± 9 23 ± 10 a
ESM 16 ± 3 22 ± 7 22 ± 8 24 ± 7 a
PAOP (mmHg) Control 8 ± 1 8 ± 1 7 ± 1 7 ± 1  
ESM 7 ± 2 8 ± 2 8 ± 2 9 ± 2  
SvO2 (%) Control 74 ± 4.5 78 ± 7.0 74 ± 10 69 ± 9.3  
ESM 71 ± 5.1 73 ± 9 65 ± 11 65 ± 15  
P(v-a)CO2 (mmHg) Control 4.7 ± 2.9 4.4 ± 3.6 6.9 ± 4.6 5.8 ± 4.0  
ESM 5.2 ± 5.1 5.2 ± 3.2 7.2 ± 3.1 7.1 ± 4.0  
NE (μg/kg/min) Control   0.77 ± 0.52 1.34 ± 0.6 1.88 ± 1.31 a
ESM   0.87 ± 0.61 1.42 ± 0.61 1.52 ± 0.27 a
  1. Values are presented as mean ± standard deviation (SD)
  2. LPS lipopolysaccharide, ESM esmolol, HR heart rate, MAP mean arterial pressure, CO cardiac output, MPAP mean pulmonary arterial pressure, PAOP pulmonary artery occlusion pressure, SvO 2 mixed venous oxygen saturation, p(v-a)CO 2 mixed venous to arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure gradient, NE norepinephrine
  3. p < 0.05 considered as significant
  4. aSignificant changes over time within groups (comparison made with Friedman test and post hoc Bonferroni correction)
  5. *Significant difference between control group and ESM group, respectively at the same time point (comparison made with Mann-Whitney U test)