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Table 2 The use of vasoactive medications, their relationship with 90-day mortality, and maximum rates and duration of infusion

From: Current real-life use of vasopressors and inotropes in cardiogenic shock - adrenaline use is associated with excess organ injury and mortality

  Overall use n (%) 90-Day mortality    
   When treated with the respective agent When treated without the respective agent P Maximum infusion rate, μg/kg/min, median (IQR) Infusion duration, h
Vasopressors
 Noradrenaline 162 (75) 47 % 24 % 0.003 0.31 (0.16–0.63) 42 (20–72)
 Adrenaline 46 (21) 74 % 32 % <0.001 0.22 (0.10–0.36) 18 (6–41)
 Dopamine 56 (26) 43 % 41 % 0.8 7.5 (3.2–11.1) 25 (8–71)
 Vasopressin/terlipressin 8 (4) 88 % 39 % 0.01 NA 20 (9–29)
Inotropes
 Dobutamine 105 (49) 48 % 35 % 0.06 9.8 (6.5–16.7) 49 (16–72)
 Levosimendan 52 (24) 33 % 44 % 0.15 0.13 (0.10–0.22) 40 (28–51)
 PDE3i 9 (4) 33 % 42 % 0.6 NA 43 (21–72)
Combinations
 Vasopressor combination 65 (30) 66 % 30 % <0.001 - -
 Dobutamine and vasopressor(s) 84 (39) 57 % 31 % <0.001 - -
 Levosimendan and vasopressor(s) 47 (21) 34 % 44 % 0.3 - -
  1. PDE3i phosphodiesterase 3 inhibitor (milrinone or enoximone), NA, not applicable
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