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Table 1 Clinical studies of volumetric capnography

From: Volumetric capnography: lessons from the past and current clinical applications

  Dead space indices (method) Clinical impacts References
ARDS VDphys/VT (Enghoff approach; equation with PĒCO2 estimated by indirect calorimeter or Vcap) Predictive value of mortality [2327]
VDphys/VT (Enghoff approach; equation with PĒCO2 estimated by Douglas bag or Vcap)
VDalv, VDalv/VTalv, VAE/VT (Vcap)
Pa-ETCO2 gradient
Indication values of recruitment with estimation of the best PEEP [28]
Experimental model studies [29, 30]
Indices of Vcap unmodified during PEEP without recruitment maneuvers [32, 33]
VDalv/VT (mainstream CO2 sensor) Indication value of prone position’s response [36]
VDphys/VT (Enghoff approach; equation with PĒCO2 estimated by indirect calorimeter) Indices of Vcap unmodified during prone position [37]
Pulmonary embolism AVDSf, ETCO2/O2, time-based capnogram area and Vcap Diagnostic tool in ER Meta-analysis [43]
VDalv/VT (Enghoff approach; Vcap) [39]
Fdlate, PE index (Enghoff approach; Vcap) [40, 42]
Fdlate, slope III (Enghoff approach; Vcap)
Pa-ETCO2 gradient
AVDSf
Therapeutic efficacy in ER (case report) [44, 45]
Healthy patient undergoing elective surgery VDalv/VTalv (Enghoff approach; Vcap) Indices of Vcap unmodified during prone position [38]
VDphys/VT (Enghoff approach; Vcap) Indication values of recruitment and estimation best PEEP (hysterectomies and hemicolectomies; faciomaxillary surgery) [46, 47]
Obese patient during bariatric surgery Slope of phase III (SIII) (Vcap) Indication values of recruitment and estimation of the best PEEP [48]
VTCO2,br and VDphys/VT (Bohr approach; Vcap) [49]
One-lung ventilation during thoracic surgery VDalv/VTalv (Enghoff approach; Vcap) Indication values of recruitment and estimation of the best PEEP [51]
VDalv/VTalv, VDphys/VT (Enghoff approach; Vcap) Physiological dead space did not change but alveolar indice of Vcap improved during recruitment [52]
Weaning from ventilator VDphys/VT (Enghoff’ approach; Vcap) Predictive value of successful extubation (pediatric and adult population) [53, 54]
  1. AVDSf alveolar dead space fraction, ER emergency room, Fdlate late dead space fraction, PE index ratio between PaCO2-ETCO2 and slope of phase III’s plateau, PEEP positive end-expiratory pressure, Vcap volumetric capnography