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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population

From: Structural equation modelling exploration of the key pathophysiological processes involved in cardiac surgery-related acute kidney injury in infants

Characteristics Data
Demographic characteristics  
 Age, days 95.8 ± 91.1
  ≤ 28 days of birth 75 (37.5)
  ≤ 48 h of birth 5 (2.5)
 Weight, kg 4.4 ± 1.5
Medical history before surgery  
 Genetic syndrome 8 (4)
 Resternotomy 18 (9)
 Cardiopulmonary resuscitation 2 (1)
 Mechanical ventilation 11 (5.5)
 Inotropic support 3 (1.5)
 Infection 19 (9.5)
 Enteropathy 4 (2)
Medication before surgery  
 Furosemide 42 (21)
 Spironolactone 12 (6)
 Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors 28 (14)
 Beta blockers 12 (6)
 Prostaglandin E1 44 (22)
 Aminoglycoside antibiotics 31 (15.5)
 Vancomycin 18 (9)
Angiography within 1 week before surgery 22 (11)
Intra-operative variables  
 STS-EACTS Congenital Heart Surgery Mortality Score 0.94 ± 0.79
 Duration of cardiopulmonary bypass, minutes 118.2 ± 63.0
 Surgery requiring aortic cross-clamping 190 (95)
 Duration of aortic cross-clamping, minutes 62.9 ± 33.9
 Ultrafiltration rate, ml kg−1 min−1 of bypass 1.4 ± 0.6
 Surgery requiring deep hypothermic circulatory arrest 18 (9)
 Packed red blood cell transfusions, ml 469.9 ± 153.9
 Fresh frozen plasma transfusions, ml 221.1 ± 116.4
 Platelet transfusions, ml 61.8 ± 32.7
Post-operative variables  
 Requirement for delayed sternal closure 38 (19)
 Requirement for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation 3 (1.5)
 Peak lactacidemia within 6 h of surgery, mmol L−1 3.8 ± 2.0
 Peak lactacidemia within 48 h of surgery, mmol L−1 3.7 ± 1.9
 Vasoactive-inotropic score within 48 h of surgery, μg kg−1 min−1 15.05 ± 7.29
 Delay to sternal closure, days 3.9 ± 3.5
Post-operative renal variables  
 Peak serum creatinine within 48 h of surgery, mmol L−1) 49.2 ± 23.1
 Peak ΔsCr within 48 h of surgery, % 26.4 ± 47.1
 Mean urine output within 24 h of surgery, ml kg−1 h−1 4.1 ± 2.7
 Negative fluid balance, ml kg−1 24 h−1 −28.06 ± 26.8
 Peritoneal dialysis 16 (8)
 Duration of peritoneal dialysis, days 0.24 ± 0.96
 AKI stage according to AKIN system  
  Stage 1 16 (8)
  Stage 2 8 (4)
  Stage 3 17 (8.5)
Duration of mechanical ventilation, days 1 [0–5]
Duration of intensive care unit stay, days 4.5 [2–7]
In-hospital death 8 (4)
  1. AKI acute kidney injury, AKIN Acute Kidney Injury Network, ΔsCr serum creatinine variation relative to baseline, STS-EACTS Society of Thoracic Surgeons and European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery
  2. Data are shown as mean ± SD, median [IQR] or number and proportion