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Table 3 Summary of case mix, clinical course, and outcomes for critically ill patients younger than 65 years old, stratified by frailty status

From: A prospective multicenter cohort study of frailty in younger critically ill patients

Variable Frail Nonfrail p Value
ICU diagnostic category, n (%)    0.284
 Sepsis 10 (18.2) 15 (10.6)  
 Cardiovascular 5 (9.1) 20 (14.1)  
 Respiratory 22 (40.0) 45 (31.7)  
 Gastrointestinal/liver 9 (16.4) 25 (17.6)  
 Othera 9 (16.4) 37 (26.1)  
ICU admission source, n (%)    0.900
 Ward transfer 17 (30.9) 41 (28.9)  
 OR theater transfer 13 (23.6) 39 (27.5)  
 ED 14 (25.5) 40 (28.1)  
 Otherb 10 (18.2), 1 (1.8) 20 (14.1), 2 (1.4)  
Postoperative, n (%) 13 (23.6) 55 (38.7) 0.046
APACHE II score, mean ± SD 19.8 ± 6.7 17.9 ± 7.4 0.103
SOFA score, mean ± SD 8.2 ± 4.0 7.0 ± 4.1 0.086
Mechanical ventilation, n (%) 52 (94.5) 120 (84.5) 0.058
Vasoactive medications, n (%) 33 (60.0) 72 (50.7) 0.241
Renal replacement therapy, n (%) 6 (10.9) 21 (14.8) 0.478
Preferences for support, n (%)    0.069
 Full ICU support 48 (87.3) 134 (95.0)  
 Limitations on therapy (DNR order) 7 (12.7) 7 (5.0)  
Mortality, n (%)    
 ICU 6 (10.9) 10 (7.0) 0.390
 Hospital 11 (20.0) 20 (14.1) 0.306
 90-day 13 (23.6) 21 (14.8) 0.140
 6-month 16 (29.1) 25 (17.6) 0.075
 1-year 18 (32.7) 29 (20.4) 0.069
ICU length of stay, days, median (IQR) 6 (3.5–11.5) 6 (3–10) 0.383
ICU readmission, n (%) 9 (18.4) 18 (13.6) 0.427
Hospital length of stay, median (IQR) 26 (9–68) 18.5 (10–43) 0.389
Hospital readmission, n (%) 26 (60.5) 49 (40.2) 0.022
Discharge disposition, n (%)    0.112
 Living at home independent 14 (32.6) 62 (50.8)  
 Living at home with help 16 (37.2) 31 (25.4)  
 Other 13 (30.2) 29 (23.8)  
EQ-5D-VAS, 6-month    
 Mean (SD) 58.8 (18.7) 63.4 (20.4) 0.254
n (%) 34/39 (87.2) 96/117 (82.1)  
EQ-5D-VAS, 1-year    
 Mean (SD) 63.0 (20.2) 68.3 (17.6) 0.184
n (%) 28/37 (75.7) 85/113 (75.2)  
MCIDc in EQ-5D-VAS between 6 and 12 months, n (%) 10/27 (37.0) 29/77 (37.7) 0.95
EQ-5D, 6-month, n (%)    
 Mobility 25 (71.4) 40 (41.2) 0.002
 Self-care 11 (31.4) 8 (8.2) 0.001
 Usual activities 30 (85.7) 65 (67.7) 0.041
 Pain/discomfort 30 (85.7) 54 (55.7) 0.002
 Anxiety/depression 19 (54.3) 36 (37.1) 0.077
  1. ICU intensive care unit, ED emergency department, OR operating room, VAS visual analogue scale, DNR do not resuscitate, APACHE Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, EQ-5D EuroQol Health Questionnaire, MCID minimal clinically important difference, IQR interquartile range
  2. aOther was defined as urologic/renal, neurologic, endocrinologic/metabolic, hematologic/oncologic, trauma, musculoskeletal
  3. bOther was defined as transfer from another hospital, other location
  4. cMinimum difference of 7 points in the EQ-5D-VAS was considered clinically important [13]
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