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Table 2 Characteristics of the study population according to colonization and infection status

From: Contribution of Candida biomarkers and DNA detection for the diagnosis of invasive candidiasis in ICU patients with severe abdominal conditions

  Diagnosis P value
Total NCI LGCC HGCC IAC Candidemia
(n = 233) (n = 48) (n = 130) (n = 24) (n = 20) (n = 11)  
Age, years, mean (± SD) 66.7 ± 13.2 66.9 ± 11.9 65.8 ± 13.9 70.7 ± 9.2 67.1 ± 15.7 67.5 ± 12.2 .597
Male/female, % 67.0/33.0 72.9/27.1 70.0/30.0 50.0/50.0 60.0/40.0 54.5/45.5 .228
ICU admission        
 APACHE II 18.4 ± 6.3 18.1 ± 6.2 18.5 ± 6.1 18.2 ± 7.1 19.6 ± 7.0 18.3 ± 6.5 .925
 SOFAa 7 (5 ; 9) 6.5 (5 ; 8) 7 (5 ; 10) 7.5 (4.5; 9.5) 6.5 (4 ; 10) 7.5 (5 ; 9) .583
Maximum score during ICU stay        
 APACHE II 18.7 ± 6.3 17.7 ± 6.6 18.3 ± 6.1 21.4 ± 7.7 19.4 ± 5.0 19.5 ± 4.7 .162
 SOFAa 7 (5–10) 7 (4–9) 7 (5–10) 7 (5–10) 7 (5–12) 9 (5.5–10) .702
Candida scorea 4 (3–4) 3 (2–4) 4 (3–4) 4 (3–5) 4.5 (4–5) 3 (3–4) < .001
ICU length of stay, daysa 15 (10–25) 12 (8–19) 14 (9–25) 21 (17–28) 14 (11–19) 16 (8–38) .017
Hospital length of stay, daysa 37 (21–57) 34 (22–45) 33 (19–59) 48 (33–68) 37 (26–58) 40 (32–59) .097
Patient type, no. (%)        .180
 Medical 22 (9.4) 5 (10.4) 12 (9.2) 2 (8.3) 0 3 (27.3)  
 Surgical* 211 (90.6) 43 (89.6) 118 (90.8) 22 (91.7) 20 (100) 8 (72.7)  
Pancreatitis not intervened 22 (9.4) 5 (10.4) 12 (9.2) 2 (8.3) 0 3 (27.3) .232
Site of abdominal surgery, no. (%)        .701
Esophagus 13 (6.2) 4 (9.3) 5 (4.2) 2 (9.1) 2 (10.0) 0  
Stomach/duodenum 21 (10.0) 1 (2.3) 14 (11.9) 3 (13.6) 3 (15.0) 0  
Biliary tract/pancreas 58 (27.5) 9 (20.9) 38 (32.2) 5 (22.7) 3 (15.0) 3 (37.5)  
Small intestine 45 (21.3) 13 (30.2) 21 (17.8) 4 (18.2) 5 (25.0) 2 (25.0)  
Colon 59 (28.0) 12 (27.9) 32 (27.1) 6 (27.3) 6 (30.0) 3 (37.5)  
Others 15 (7.1) 4 (9.3) 8 (6.8) 2 (9.1) 1 (5.0) 0  
Surgery type**, no. (%)        .556
 Emergency 135 (64.0) 24 (55.8) 78 (66.1) 13 (59.1) 15 (75.0) 5 (62.2)  
 Elective 76 (36.0) 19 (44.2) 40 (33.9) 9 (40.9) 5 (25.0) 3 (37.5)  
Surgical procedure**, no. (%)        .023
 One 113 (53.6) 23 (53.5) 70 (59.3) 11 (50.0) 4 (20.0) 5 (62.5)  
  ≥ Two 98 (46.4) 20 (46.5) 48 (40.7) 11 (50.0) 16 (80.0) 3 (37.5)  
Underlying illnesses, no. (%)        
 Solid tumor 84 (36.1) 19 (39.6) 43 (33.1) 10 (41.7) 8 (40.0) 4 (36.4) .853
 Diabetes mellitus 67 (28.8) 13 (27.1) 35 (26.9) 8 (33.3) 7 (35.0) 4 (36.4) .830
 COPD 37 (15.9) 13 (27.1) 17 (13.1) 3 (12.5) 4 (20.0) 0 .112
 Chronic renal failure 26 (11.2) 3 (6.2) 14 (10.8) 5 (20.8) 2 (10.0) 2 (18.2) .337
 Heart failure 16 (6.9) 3 (6.2) 6 (4.6) 5 (20.8) 0 2 (18.2) .023
 Chronic liver failure 9 (3.9) 4 (8.3) 3 (2.3) 2 (8.3) 0 0 .201
 Oncohematologic process 3 (1.3) 0 2 (1.5) 1 (4.2) 0 0 .635
Antifungal treatment, no. (%) 119 (51.1) 21 (43.8) 58 (44.6) 11 (45.8) 18 (90.0) 11 (100) < .001
ICU mortality, no. (%) 50 (21.5) 8 (16.7) 30 (23.1) 7 (29.7) 4 (20.0) 1 (9.1) .605
Overall mortality, no. (%) 68 (29.2) 10 (20.8) 41 (31.5) 8 (33.3) 8 (40.0) 1 (9.1) .277
  1. Values are expressed as frequencies and percentages; mean ± standard deviation (SD); amedian (25th-75th percentiles); P value: statistical significance
  2. NCI neither colonized nor infected, LGCC low-grade Candida spp. colonization, HGCC high-grade Candida spp. colonization, IAC intra-abdominal candidiasis, ICU intensive care unit, APACHE II Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  3. *Abdominal surgery; **211 patients, first surgical procedure