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Table 3 Rhabdomyolysis etiology classification [2, 2527, 44]

From: Beyond muscle destruction: a systematic review of rhabdomyolysis for clinical practice

Type Cause Examples
Acquired Trauma “Crush syndrome”
  Exertion Intense muscle activity, energy depletion, electrolyte imbalance
  Ischemia Immobilization, compression, thrombosis
  Illicit drugs Cocaine, heroin, LSD
  Alcohol Acute or chronic consumption
  Drugs Dose-dependent, multiple interactions
  Infections Bacterial, viral, parasitic
  Extreme temperatures Hyperthermia, hypothermia, neuroleptic malignant syndrome
  Endocrinopathies Hyper/hypo-thyroidism, diabetic complications
  Toxins Spider bites, wasp stings, snake venom
Inherited Metabolic myopathies Glycogen storage, fatty acid, mitochondrial disorders
  Structural myopathies Dystrophinopathy, dysferlinopathy
  Channel related gene mutations RYR1 gene mutation, SCN4A gene mutation
  Others Lipin-1 gene mutation, sickle-cell disease, “benign exertional rhabdomyolysis”