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Table 2 Studies included with treatment details

From: Beyond muscle destruction: a systematic review of rhabdomyolysis for clinical practice

Article Type of study Population IV fluid Bicarbonate/mannitol Rate of AKI and need for RRT
Altintepe et al. 2007 [55] CS N = 9 Fluid type used 5 % dextrose and 0.45 NS.
4–8 L of IV fluid daily
40 mEq NaHCO3 and 50 mL of 20 % mannitol mixed with 1 L of IV fluid (0.45 % NaCl and 5 % dextrose)
They targeted a urine pH above or equal 6.5
2 patients (28.6 %) developed AKI
Patients received hemodialysis due to hyperkalemia
Cho et al. 2007 [56] PS N = 28 Fluid therapy consisted of lactated Ringer’s solution (13 patients) versus NS (15 patients) (the authors concluded that LR was more useful than NS)
IV fluid rate 400 mL/h
Bicarbonate was used to achieve urine pH ≥6.5 in the patients with NS IV fluid No patient developed AKI
Talaie et al. 2008 [51] RS N = 156 Fluid therapy given 1–8 L in the first 24 h (mean IV fluid 3.2 L/24 h) Bicarbonate was given to 115 patients 30 patients (28.6 %) developed AKI
Zepeda-Orozco et al. 2008 [57] RS N = 28 36 % of the patients received saline infusion (20 mL/kg) in the first 24 h 79 % of patients received sodium bicarbonate IV fluid 11 patients (39.2) developed AKI
7 patients with CK levels >5000 U/L required RRT
Sanadgol et al. 2009 [58] CS N = 31 0.45 % NS 15 mEqL NaHC03 mixed with IV fluid
Alkaline IV solution 3–5× more than maintenance rate was used
8 patients (25.8 %) developed AKI
Iraj et al. 2011 [34] PS N = 638 Authors recommend >6 L/day in severe RM and ≥3 L/day IV fluid in moderate RM to decrease the incidence of AKI NA 134 patients (21 %) developed AKI
110 patients required RRT
  1. Abbreviations: AKI acute kidney injury, CS case series, IV intravenous, NA not available, NS normal saline, PS prospective study, RM rhabdomyolysis, RRT renal replacement therapy, RS retrospective study