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Table 1 Characteristics of patients on admission to the intensive care unit

From: Presentation and outcome of Middle East respiratory syndrome in Saudi intensive care unit patients

  All patients Nonsurvivors Survivors P value
N 31 23 8  
Age in years (mean ± SD) 59 ± 20 63 ± 19 46 ± 20 0.048
Male, n (%) 22 (71.0) 15 (65.2) 7 (87.3) 0.379
Body mass index in kg/m2 (mean ± SD) 29.8 ± 7.6 29.3 ± 7.1 31.2 ± 9.2 0.707
Severity scores (mean ± SD)
 APACHE II score 24.2 ± 9.5 26.4 ± 8.5 17.8 ± 9.7 0.034
 SOFA score 10.7 ± 3.5 11.7 ± 3.1 8.0 ± 3.2 0.01
Acquisition of pneumonia, n (%)     0.689
 Community-acquired 18 (58.1) 14 (60.9) 4 (50.0)  
 Hospital-acquired 13 (41.9) 9 (39.1) 4 (50.0)  
Comorbidities, n (%)
 Diabetes mellitus 17 (54.8) 13 (56.5) 4 (50.0) 1.00
 Arterial hypertension 16 (51.6) 14 (60.9) 2 (25.0) 0.113
 Immunosuppressive drugs 7 (22.6) 5 (21.7) 2 (25.0) 1.00
 Chronic heart failure 6 (19.4) 4 (17.4) 2 (25.0) 1.00
 Chronic kidney disease 6 (19.4) 4 (17.4) 2 (25.0) 0.634
 Cerebrovascular accidents 5 (16.1) 4 (17.4) 1 (12.5) 1.00
 Coronary artery disease 4 (12.9) 3 (13.0) 0 (0.0) 1.00
 Steroid use 3 (9.6) 3 (13.0) 0 (0.0) 0.161
 COPD 3 (9.7) 2 (8.7) 1 (12.5) 1.00
 Smoking 3 (9.7) 1 (4.3) 2 (25.0) 0.156
 Chronic liver disease 3 (9.7) 3 (13.0) 0 (0.0) 0.550
 Hypothyroid 3 (9.7) 3 (13.0) 0 (0.0) 0.550
 Cancer 2 (6.5) 2 (8.7) 0 (0.0) 1.00
 Epilepsy 2 (6.5) 1 (4.3) 1 (12.5) 0.456
 Dyslipidemia 1 (3.2) 1 (4.3) 0 (0.0) 1.00
 Asthma 1 (3.2) 1 (4.3) 0 (0.0) 1.00
 Bronchiectasis 1 (3.2) 1 (4.3) 0 (0.0) 1.00
 Obstructive sleep apnea 1 (3.2) 1 (4.3) 0 (0.0) 1.00
Number of comorbidities, median (IQR) 3 (2–4) 3 (2–4) 3 (1–4) 0.580
ICU mortality, n (%) 23 (74.2) 23 (100) - NA
ICU length of stay in days [median, (IQR)] 9 (4–16) 10 (4–16) 9 (4–17) 0.912
Hospital length of stay in days [median, (IQR)] 12 (4–16) 10 (4–16) 18 (14–72) 0.002
  1. APACHE acute physiology and chronic health evaluation, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ICU intensive care unit, IQR interquartile range, NA not applicable, SD standard deviation, SOFA sequential organ failure assessment