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Table 4 Comparison of treatments across the EGDT, ProCESS, ARISE, and ProMISe trials

From: Early goal-directed therapy in severe sepsis and septic shock: insights and comparisons to ProCESS, ProMISe, and ARISE

  EGDT ProCESS ARISE ProMISe
  EGDT Control EGDT PBST UC EGDT UC EGDT UC
Fluid from ED arrival to 6 h, mLa 4981 3499 5059 5511 4362 4479 4304 4216 3987
Fluids 6–72 h, mL 8625 10,602 4458 4918 4354 4274 4382 4215 4366
Total fluids 0–72 h, mL 13,443 13,358 7253 8193 6663 6906 6672 5946 5844
Vasopressor 0–6 h, % 27.4 30.3 54.9 52.2 44.1 66.6 57.8 53.3 46.6
Vasopressor 6–72 h, % 29.1 42.9 47.6 46.6 43.2 58.8 51.5 57.9 52.6
Vasopressor 0–72 h, % 36.8 51.3 60.4 61.2 53.7    60.5 55.0
Inotrope 0–6 h, % 13.7 0.8 8.0 1.1 0.9 15.4 2.6 18.1 3.8
Inotrope 6–72 h, % 14.5 8.4 4.3 2.0 2.2 9.5 5.0 17.7 6.5
Mechanical ventilation 0–6 h, % 53.0 53.8 26.4 24.7 21.7 34.8c 32.9c 20.2 19.0
Mechanical ventilation 6–72 h, % 2.6 16.8 33.7 31.4 27.9 38.6c 40.6c 24.4 25.4
Any mechanical ventilation, % 55.6 70.6 36.2 34.1 29.6 30.0 31.5 27.4 28.5
Steroids pre-randomization, % None None 9.3 9.4 8.3    5 4
Steroids 0–6 h, % None None 12.3 10.8 8.1    11.7 11.5
Any steroids 72 h, % None None     36.9 35.9 21.9 21.1
  1. aThe Pre-Randomization period refers to a time-frame prior to the time of informed consent for study enrollment. Interventions were initiated as indicated, but these interventions were not considered for outcome evaluations (Additional file 1: Figure S3)
  2. bCombined invasive and non-invasive mechanical ventilation
  3. ARISE Australasian Resuscitation in Sepsis Evaluation, EGDT Early Goal-Directed Therapy, ED emergency department, PBST protocol-based standard therapy, ProCESS Protocolized Care for Early Septic Shock, ProMISe Protocolized Management in Sepsis, UC usual care