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Table 1 Comparison of observational studies before and during the EGDT, ProCESS, ProMISe and ARISE trials

From: Early goal-directed therapy in severe sepsis and septic shock: insights and comparisons to ProCESS, ProMISe, and ARISE

Studies Year Mortality before (%)a Mortality after (%)b
EGDT [3] 1997–2000 46.5 30.5
Shanker-Hari et al. (septic shock) [96] (n = 52, n = 166,479) 1993-2015 46.5 n/a
US observational Studies
Dombrovsky et al. (severe sepsis) [133] 2001 40.3 n/a
Ani et al. (severe sepsis) [134] 1999–2008 40.0 27.8
Stevenson et al. [135] 1993–2009 46.9 29.2
Kumar et al. (severe sepsis) [136] 2003–2009 39.6 27.3
Kumar et al. (septic shock) [136] 2000–2007 47.1 36.4
Mechanically ventilated patients [60] 2002–2012 64.1 39.7
Studies of EGDT (number of studies, number of patients)
Quasi experimental studies (n = 4, n = 1120) [137140] 2001–2016 45.8 28.5
Prospective observational (n = 38, n = 66,862) [43, 87, 91, 93, 94, 141174] 2001–2016 40.3 27.6
Prospective with historical controls (n = 9, n = 2250) [175183] 2001–2016 45.5 29.6
Retrospective (n = 10, n = 2183) [184193] 2001–2016 41.1 24.7
Randomized control trials (n = 11, n = 5756) [3, 1214, 79, 194199] 2001–2016 31.3 26.2
ProCESS [12] 2008–2013 18.9 19-20
United Kingdom observational studies
Padkin et al. [200] 1995–2000 47.0 n/a
Gao et al. [148] 2004–2005 55.0 29.0
Reuben et al. [201] 2004–2005 43.0 n/a
Melville et al. [202] 2005–2008 51.9 41.3
Daniels et al. [203] 2007–2008 44.1 20.0
Sivayoham et al. [189] 2006–2009 42.8 22.7
ProMISe [14] 2011–2014 25.6 24.6
Australia and New Zealand observational studies
Finfer et al. (severe sepsis) [204] 1999 37.5 n/a
Kaukonen et al. (severe sepsis, with co morbidities) [205] 2000–2012 46.3 23.4
Kaukonen et al. (severe sepsis) [205] 2000–2012 30.2 14.2
Kaukonen et al. (septic shock) [205] 2000–2012 40.3 22.0
ARISE [13] 2008–2014 18.8 18.6
  1. aBefore (baseline, usual or control); bAfter (treatment). References are given in Additional file 1 (Table S6)
  2. ARISE Australasian Resuscitation in Sepsis Evaluation, EGDT Early Goal-Directed Therapy, ProCESS Protocolized Care for Early Septic Shock, ProMISe Protocolized Management in Sepsis