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Table 2 Comparison of participants of month 1 and/or month 4 to participants of all three measurement occasions

From: The interplay between teamwork, clinicians’ emotional exhaustion, and clinician-rated patient safety: a longitudinal study

  Month 1 and/or 4 Month 1, 4, 7   
  Frequency df Chi square
Gender (male/female) 1280/278 287/102 1 0.43
Professional role 1271/441 159/18 1 0.71**
  M SD M SD df t value
Age 38.80 9.44 41.03 9.02 1408 -4.12***
Tenure (years in organization) 9.00 8.05 11.04 8.76 1404 -4.16***
Tenure (years in ICU) 7.30 7.44 9.69 7.87 1408 -5.29***
Professional experience 11.62 8.99 14.16 8.51 1418 -4.84***
Cognitive-behavioral teamwork month 1 5.23 0.83 5.27 0.77 1347 -0.87
Interpersonal teamwork month 1 3.11 0.63 3.14 0.59 1332 -0.81
Emotional exhaustion month 1 2.79 0.86 2.60 0.79 1310 3.88***
Clinician-rated patient safety month 1 3.71 0.65 3.70 0.58 1307 0.42
Cognitive-behavioral teamwork month 4 5.22 0.80 5.28 0.74 935 -1.27
Interpersonal teamwork month 4 3.14 0.63 3.13 0.63 927 0.002
Emotional exhaustion month 4 2.75 0.85 2.56 0.79 908 3.33***
Clinician-rated patient safety month 4 3.72 0.61 3.70 0.56 908 0.60
  1. Chi square: dichotomous variables; t tests: continuous variables. Workload in hospital/ICU were not included in analyses because the number of clinicians who indicated their workload across all measurement occasions was insufficient
  2. M mean, SD standard deviation, ICU intensive care unit
  3. ** p < .01 (two-tailed test); *** p < .001 (two-tailed test)