Skip to main content


Fig. 5 | Critical Care

Fig. 5

From: Evidence for a causal link between sepsis and long-term mortality: a systematic review of epidemiologic studies

Fig. 5

Additional post-acute hazard with sepsis. To illustrate the differences in additional hazard with sepsis, all four sub-graphs were generated with the same scale on the x axis. Dashed line at hazard ratio 1 is the reference line; shaded area shows the range between 0 and 1. If the same study reported risk-adjusted and unadjusted hazard ratios, these are presented together to highlight confounding. If only proportions are reported, they are presented as dots. Confidence intervals of hazard ratios are shown when reported in studies. a Additional hazard when compared to general population controls. b Additional hazard when compared to hospitalized controls. Hazard ratios associated with single episode of pneumonia are reported for Yende S et al. [40]. c Additional hazard when compared to critically ill controls. d Confounding from studies reporting multiple controls. In Linder et al, the additional risk of sepsis compared to critically ill controls (Model-1) and cardiovascular system (CVS) surgical controls (Model-2) between 1 and 5 years [37]. In Ghelani et al, the additional risk of sepsis compared to critically ill controls (Model-1) and hospital infected controls (Model-2) [30]. In all the graphs, the hazard ratios are either reported by the study or estimated by comparing the sepsis outcomes to reported control populations. HAI healthcare-associated infection, SMR standardized mortality ratio, HR @ 2 yrs refers to hazard ratio at 2 years, Model-1, Model-2 different risk-adjusted models reported in studies. Additional details are provided in Additional file 1: Table S6

Back to article page