Skip to main content

Table 3 American College of Surgeons Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) responses to initial fluid resuscitation*. Table reprinted with permission from the American College of Surgeons [84]

From: The European guideline on management of major bleeding and coagulopathy following trauma: fourth edition

  Rapid response Transient response Minimal or no response
Vital signs Return to normal Transient improvement, recurrence of decreased blood pressure and increased heart rate Remain abnormal
Estimated blood loss Minimal (10–20 %) Moderate and ongoing (20–40 %) Severe (>40 %)
Need for more crystalloid Low Low to moderate Moderate as a bridge to transfusion
Need for blood Low Moderate to high Immediate
Blood preparation Type and crossmatch Type-specific Emergency blood release
Need for operative intervention Possibly Likely Highly likely
Early presence of surgeon Yes Yes Yes
  1. *Isotonic crystalloid solution, 2000 ml in adults; 20 ml/kg in children