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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of included patients

From: The association between lactate, mean arterial pressure, central venous oxygen saturation and peripheral temperature and mortality in severe sepsis: a retrospective cohort analysis

  All N = 821 Lactate(24 h) <2 mmol/l Lactate(24 h) <2 mmol/l Lactate(24 h) ≥2 mmol/l Lactate(24 h) ≥2 mmol/l p value*
MAP(24 h) <65 mmHg MAP(24 h) ≥65 mmHg MAP(24 h) <65 mmHg MAP(24 h) ≥65 mmHg
N = 68 N = 406 N = 115 N = 232
Male (%) 532/821 (64.8) 45/68 (66.2) 274/406 (67.5) 77/115 (67.0) 136/232 (58.6) 0.15
Age (years) 64.0 (14.4) 68.7 (12.1) 62.8 (14.4) 68.2 (11.3) 62.5 (15.8) 0.001
MAP(adm) 76.9 (21) 64.8 (14) 83.2 (21) 62.6 (14) 76.5 (22) 0.001
MAP(24 h) 72.7 (10) 61.6 (2.9) 77.3 (9.4) 60.2 (4.4) 73.9 (8.1) 0.001
Lactate(adm) 1.9 (1.2–3.5) 1.3 (1.1–1.9) 1.3 (1.0–1.7) 4.2 (2.7–6.6) 3.5 (2.6–5.2) 0.001
Lactate(24 h) 1.8 (1.2–2.8) 1.3 (1.1–1.8) 1.3 (1.1–1.6) 3.9 (2.7–6.2) 2.9 (2.3–4.1) 0.001
ScvO2(adm) 66.4 (11) 76.4 (3.3) 68.3 (9.0) 63.9 (11) 64.7 (13) 0.50
ScvO2(24 h) 69.3 (9.4) 71.1 (11) 71.3 (8.6) 68.4 (7.6) 67.3 (9.9) 0.063
Delta-T(adm) 6.6 (4.2–9.3) 7.2 (3.2–10) 5.9 (3.9–8.8) 7.4 (5.1–9.7) 7.4 (4.8–9.9) 0.007
Delta-T(24 h) 3.7 (2.8–5.1) 3.4 (2.7–4.9) 3.3 (2.5–4.5) 4.5 (3.3–6.1) 4.0 (3.1–5.8) 0.001
24-h fluid balance (ml) 3366 (1314–5568) 4321 (2160–5939) 2238 (825–3973) 7080 (3671–9795) 3932 1722–6277) 0.001
Mechanical ventilation (%) at any time during ICU stay 627/821 (76) 52/68 (76.5) 304/406 (74.9) 95/115 (82.6) 176/232 (75.9) 0.39
P/F ratio (lowest during ICU stay) 156 (105–226) 169 (117–232) 160 (107–220) 140 (89–202) 166 (105–257) 0.04
Noradrenalin dosea (mg) 0.0 (0–4.2) 0.57 (0–4.8) 0.0 (0–0.85) 7.4 (0.98-19.2) 0.72 (0–6.9) 0.001
Dopamine dosea (mg) 215 (59–469) 402 (230–727) 172 (0–320) 515 (231–912) 219 (62–473) 0.001
History of arterial hypertension 237/821 (28.9) 18/68 (26.5) 131/406 (32.3) 34/115 (29.6) 54/232 (23.3) 0.11
CRRTb (%) 121/821 (14.7) 12/68 (17.6) 22/406 (5.4) 49/115 (42.6) 38/232 (16.4) 0.001
SOFA admission 7.8 (3.7) 8.1 (3.2) 6.5 (2.7) 10.9 (4.5) 8.7 (3.8) 0.001
APACHE IV predicted mortality 0.34 (0.16–0.60) 0.37 (0.19–0.57) 0.25 (0.13–0.45) 0.63 (0.37–0.84) 0.37 (0.18–0.67) 0.001
Length of ICU stay in hours 86.0 (40.0–209) 96.5 (47.8–254) 72 (39.0–189) 120 (64.0–283) 80.5 (36.0–199) 0.013
ICU mortality (%) 146/821 (17.8) 13/68 (19.1) 37/406 (9.1) 51/115 (44.3) 45/232 (19.4) 0.001
Hospital mortality (%) 215/821 (26.2) 18/68 (26.5) 64/406 (15.8) 62/115 (53.9) 71/232 (30.6) 0.001
  1. Values for MAP are given in mmHg, values for lactate in mmol/l, values delta-T in °C and values for ScvO2 in %
  2. Groups represent mean lactate and mean MAP over the first 24 hours of ICU admission. Data are given as mean (standard deviation) or median (interquartile range)
  3. *p-value shows differences between all groups
  4. a Cumulative dose over first 24 hours of ICU admission
  5. b At any time during ICU admission, available for 193 patients
  6. (24 h) arithmetic mean of all validated measurements during the first 24 hours after admission, (adm) at admission, APACHE Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, CRRT continuous renal replacement therapy, delta-T difference between central and forefoot temperature, ICU intensive care unit, MAP mean arterial pressure, P/F PaO2 / FiO2 ratio, ScvO 2 central venous oxygen saturation, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment