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Table 1 Characteristics of common crystalloid solutions compared to human plasma

From: Crystalloid fluid therapy

  Plasma 0.9 % saline Compound sodium lactate (lactate buffered solution) Ringer’s lactate (lactate buffered solution) Ionosteril® (acetate buffered solution) Sterofundin ISO® (acetate & malate buffered solution) Plasma‐Lyte 148® (acetate & gluconate buffered solution)
Sodium (mmol/l) 136–145 154 129 130 137 145 140
Potassium (mmol/l) 3.5–5.0   5 4 4 4 5
Magnesium (mmol/l) 0.8–1.0     1.25 1 1.5
Calcium (mmol/l) 2.2–2.6   2.5 3 1.65 2.5  
Chloride (mmol/l) 98–106 154 109 109 110 127 98
Acetate (mmol/l)      36.8 24 27
Gluconate (mmol/l)        23
Lactate (mmol/l)    29 28    
Malate (mmol/l)       5  
eSID (mEq/l) 42   27 28 36.8 25.5 50
Theoretical osmolarity (mosmol/l) 291 308 278 273 291 309 295
Actual or measured aosmolality (mosmol/kg H2O) 287 286 256 256 270 Not stated 271
pH 7.35–7.45 4.5–7 5–7 5.0–7 6.9–7.9 5.1–5.9 4–8
  1. a Freezing point depression
  2. Plasma‐Lyte 148 manufactured by Baxter Healthcare, Toongabie, NSW, Australia
  3. Ringer’s Lactate manufactured by Baxter Healthcare, Deerfield, IL, USA
  4. Hartmann’s solution manufactured by Baxter Healthcare, Toongabie, NSW, Australia
  5. Ionosteril manufactured by Fresenius Medical Care, Schweinfurt, Germany
  6. Sterofundin ISO manufactured by B. Braun Melsungen AG, Melsungen, Germany