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Table 2 Laboratory values, clinical scoring systems and outcomes for the entire cohort of patients with necrotizing soft tissue infections and for the septic shock and nonshock (no sepsis, sepsis, severe sepsis) subgroups

From: Pentraxin-3 as a marker of disease severity and risk of death in patients with necrotizing soft tissue infections: a nationwide, prospective, observational study

  Entire cohort (n = 135) Nonshock (n = 39) Septic shock (n = 96) p
Biomarker level upon admission (baseline)
 Pentraxin-3, ng/mL 52.4 (17.7–172.2) 24.6 (10.7–58.0) 67.3 (28.8–213.5) <0.0001
 Procalcitonin, μg/L 7.7 (1.4–28.8) 1.5 (0.3–7.2) 13.6 (2.9–37.8) <0.0001
 C-reactive protein, mg/L 222 (141–298) 201 (134–275) 222 (152–302) 0.295
Biochemistry
 Leukocyte count, 109/L, highest value 16.9 (10.4–23.9) 15.5 (9.7–22.7) 17.6 (12.2–24.5) 0.197
 Na+, mmol/L, lowest value 136 (132–138) 136 (134–139) 135 (131–138) 0.198
 K+, mmol/L, highest value 4.3 (4.0–4.9) 4.1 (3.8–4.3) 4.5 (4.1–5.2) <0.0001
 Glucose, mmol/L, highest value 8.3 (7.1–11.5) 7.5 (5.8–9.9) 8.6 (7.3–12.4) 0.011
 Creatinine, μmol/L, highest value 119 (77–205) 82 (58–127) 142 (82–229) 0.002
 Hemoglobin, mmol/L, lowest value 5.7 (4.9–6.5) 5.7 (4.9–6.7) 5.7 (4.8.9–6.3) 0.429
 pH, lowest value 7.30 (7.20–7.37) 7.35 (7.29–7.40) 7.28 (7.18–7.34) 0.006
 pO2, kPa, from lowest PaO2/FiO2 ratio 13.7 (10.9–19.7) 14.4 (11,5–22.3) 12.8 (10.8–18.1) 0.137
 Base excess, mmol/L, lowest value −5.5 (−9.4 to −1.8) −2.2 (−5.7 to −2.2) −6.7 (−10.9 to −2.5) 0.001
 Lactate, mmol/L, highest value 1.9 (1.1–4.1) 1.0 (0.7–1.6) 2.5 (1.5–5.0) <0.0001
ICU scoring systems and treatment
 SAPS IIa 45 (35–52) 35 (29–48) 46 (39–56) 0.001
 SOFA (day 1)b 7 (4–10) 3 (2–5) 8 (7–10) <0.0001
 LRINECc 8 (6–9) 8 (5–9) 8 (6–10) 0.103
 ICU admissiond 123 (91) 28 (72) 95 (99) <0.0001
 Ventilator treatment 122 (90) 27 (70) 95 (99) <0.0001
 Renal replacement therapye 34 (25) 5 (13) 29 (30) 0.035
 Amputation of limb or penise 27 (20) 5 (13) 22 (23) 0.184
Mortality
 28-day (%, 95 % CI) 22 (16, 11–24) 8 (21, 11–36) 14 (15, 9–23) 0.398
 90-day (%, 95 % CI) 31 (23, 17–31) 9 (23, 12–39) 22 (23, 16–32) 0.984
 180-day (%, 95 % CI) 36 (27, 20–35) 10 (26, 14–41) 26 (27, 19–37) 0.864
 Long-term up to 2.5 yearsf (%, 95 % CI) 44 (33, 25–41) 12 (31, 18–47) 32 (33, 25–43) 0.773
  1. Values denote median (interquartile range) or number (%). Differences between the shock and non-shock group were tested using Mann-Whitney U or χ2-test/Fisher’s exact test
  2. aNumber of patients with missing values: n = 5 (n = 3 for nonshock; n = 2 for shock)
  3. bNumber of patients with missing values: n = 6 (n = 3 for nonshock; n = 3 for shock)
  4. cNumber of patients with missing values: n = 15 (n = 9 for nonshock; n = 6 for shock)
  5. dThree patients died before admission to the ICU (n = 2 for nonshock; n = 1 for shock)
  6. eWithin the first 7 days in the ICU
  7. fA follow-up up to 2.5 years
  8. CI Confidence interval, ICU Intensive care unit, LRINEC Laboratory risk indicator for necrotizing fasciitis, SAPS Simplified Acute Physiology Score, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment