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Table 2 Hazard ratios and confidence intervals for inhospital mortality

From: Lactic acidosis and severe septic shock in metformin users: a cohort study

Variable All patients Metformin users Metformin nonusers
N = 162 n = 44 n = 118
Age (1 year↑) 1.05 (1.02–1.08)P 0.99 (0.95–1.02) 1.05P (1.0–1.08)
Gender (male) 0.83 (0.58–1.18) 0.67 (0.30–1.14) 0.88 (0.59–1.32)
Diabetes 0.50 (0.34–0.74)P --- 0.82 (0.48–1.40)
Hypertension 0.79 (0.55–1.14) 0.47 (0.19–1.14) 1.12 (0.74–1.65)
IHD 1.22 (0.83–1.78) 0.88 (0.37–2.06) 1.55P (1.01–2.4)
Cerebrovascular attack 1.09 (0.72–1.65) 1.57 (0.69–3.50) 1.15 (1.01–2.40)
Lactate (1 mg/dL↑) 1.06 (0.99–1.10) 1.04 (0.96–1.16) 1.05 (0.99–1.11)
pH 0.91 (0.37–2.26) 1.02 (0.16–6.45) 1.05 (0.99–1.11)
Bicarbonate (1 meq/L↑) 0.97 (0.93–1.01) 0.99 (0.92–1.06) 0.97 (0.93–1.01)
APACHE II (1↑) 1.03 (0.99–1.07) 1.10 (1.01–1.20)P 0.99 (0.95–1.04)
Acute kidney injury 0.93 (0.62–1.40) 0.80 (2.37–2.68) 0.91 (0.54–1.50)
Creatinine (1 mg/dL↑) 0.92 (0.82–1.00) 0.91 (0.75–1.11) 1.08 (0.92–1.29)
Anion gap (1↑) 0.99 (0.97–1.01) 0.98 (0.94–1.02) 1.01 (0.98–1.04)
HD 0.61 (0.40–0.95)P 0.46 (0.19–1.11) 0.91 (0.54–1.50)
Temperature (1 °C) 0.94 (0.63–1.40) 0.89 (0.55–1.34) 0.98 (0.67–1.45)
Metformin 0.42 (0.27–0.66)P --- ---
Metformin adj* 0.21 (0.05–0.94)P --- ---
  1. Univariate analyses are presented for the investigated variables. A multivariate analysis is presented for metformin use
  2. IHD ischemic heart disease, HD underwent hemodialysis, APACHE II acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II.
  3. PRefers to p <0.05
  4. *Adjusted for age, gender, diabetes, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, malignancy, levels of creatinine and lactate at admission, and APACHE II score