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Table 1 Baseline patient characteristics

From: Lactic acidosis and severe septic shock in metformin users: a cohort study

  Metformin users (n = 44) Nonusers (n = 118) p value*
Gender (male), n (%) 22 (50 %) 71 (60.17 %) 0.09
Age (mean ± SD) 74.0 ± 11.3 68.4 ± 19.7 0.03
Baseline creatinine 1.2 (0.7–1.3) 1.1 (0.7–1.2) 0.36
Hypertension, n (%) 34 (77.3) 26 (52.5) <0.001
ACEi, n (%) 18 (40.9) 26 (22.0) 0.29
Beta blockers, n (%) 27 (61.4) 37 (31.4) 0.09
Diabetes, n (%) 44 (100) 23 (19.83) <0.001
Metformin dose (g) 1.6 (0.8)   
Insulin n (%) 9 (20.5) 13 (11.4) <0.001
Ischemic heart disease, n (%) 15 (34.1) 358 (29.7) 0.05
Cerebrovascular attack, n (%) 14 (32.6) 23 (19.5) 0.02
Aspirin use, n (%) 20 (45.5) 318 (26.3) 0.65
Malignancy, n (%) 8 (18.2) 21 (17.8) <0.001
Lactate (median, IQR) 12.7 (11.1–15.0) 12.7 (11.3–16.3) 0.90
Ph (median, IQR) 7.06 (6.9–7.20) 7.10 (6.94–7.20) 0.80
HCO3 (mean ± SD) 10.9 ± 5.6 11.5 ± 5.1 0.56
APACHE II score 41.12 ± 8.8 37.97 ± 6.16 0.01
Mortality score 34.7(11.7–55.6) 43.9 (31.5–59.6) 0.19
Creatinine at admission 2.87 (1.5–3.32) 2.14 (1.21–3) 0.02
Acute kidney injury (%) 38 (86.7 %) 65 (56.7 %) 0.02
Renal replacement therapy (%) (38.6 %) 17 25 (21.2 %) 0.13
Inhospital mortality 25 (556.8 %) 104 (88.1 %) <0.001
Time to event (hospitalization to death or discharge, days, mean ± SD) 11.67 ± 15.3 4.77 ± 9.79 <0.001
  1. Data presented as mean ± standard deviation (SD) or median and interquartile (IQR) range for parameters not normally distributed or as % for categorical variables
  2. ACEi angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, APACHE II acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II
  3. * p for t test or for Mann–Whitney test for parameters not normally distributed or chi2 for categorical