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Table 3 Relationship between unadjusted ICU and patient nutritional variables and mortality

From: Nutrition support practices in critically ill head-injured patients: a global perspective

  Survivors Non-survivors Odds ratio 95 % CI p
n % n %
Sex Male 691 84.8 124 15.2 0.66 0.46, 0.96 0.029
Female 181 78.7 49 21.3 ref -
EN interrupted Yes 548 85.1 96 14.9 0.89 0.62, 1.27 0.506
No 283 83.5 56 16.5 ref -
Bedside feeding protocol Yes 730 84.6 133 15.4 0.65 0.42, 0.99 0.043
No 142 78.0 40 22.0 ref -
Bedside feeding protocol includes gastric residual volumes Yes 699 84.9 124 15.1 0.63 0.43, 0.92 0.016
No 173 77.9 49 22.1 ref -
Bedside feeding protocol includes motility agents Yes 562 84.3 105 15.7 0.85 0.60, 1.20 0.360
No 442 82.0 97 18.0 ref -
Bedside feeding protocol includes small bowel feeding Yes 430 85.0 76 15.0 0.81 0.58, 1.12 0.201
No 442 82.0 97 18.0 ref -
Bedside feeding protocol includes withholding for procedures Yes 399 83.1 81 16.9 1.04 0.75, 1.46 0.800
No 473 83.7 92 16.3 ref -
Bedside feeding protocol includes head of bed elevation Yes 586 84.0 112 16.0 0.90 0.63, 1.27 0.540
No 286 82.4 61 17.6 ref -
Dietician working in the ICU No dietician 139 79.9 35 20.1 ref - -
<1 FTE 427 86.1 69 13.9 0.64 0.41, 0.99 0.047
≥1 FTE 302 81.4 69 18.6 0.91 0.58, 1.41 0.667
Formula density (patients with >75 % of days at one density) ≤1 kcal/ml 391 85.2 68 14.8 ref - -
>1–<2 kcal/ml 275 83.6 54 16.4 1.13 0.77, 1.67 0.541
≥2 kcal/ml 16 69.6 7 30.4 2.52 0.998, 6.34 0.051
Timing of initiation of EN Day 1 or prior to ICU admission 210 87.9 29 12.1 ref - -
Day 2–4 569 83.7 111 16.3 1.41 0.91, 2.19 0.122
Day 5 or later 52 81.3 12 18.8 1.67 0.80, 2.50 0.173
  1. FTE full-time equivalent, EN enteral nutrition