Skip to main content

Table 2 Relationship between ICU and patient nutritional variables and energy and protein deficit

From: Nutrition support practices in critically ill head-injured patients: a global perspective

  Energy deficit (kcal/d) Protein deficit (g/d)
Mean Standard deviation p Mean Standard deviation p
Bedside feeding protocol Yes 788 528 0.223 45.2 30.2 0.129
No 877 518 52.0 30.0
Bedside feeding protocol includes gastric residual volumes Yes 783 532 0.094 44.7 30.0 0.038
No 878 505 52.6 30.4
Bedside feeding protocol includes motility agents Yes 732 507 <.001 42.1 29.3 <.001
No 930 539 54.1 30.5
Bedside feeding protocol includes small bowel feeding Yes 720 507 <.001 41.0 29.0 0.001
No 883 535 51.6 30.5
Bedside feeding protocol includes withholding for procedures Yes 755 543 0.076 42.1 29.9 0.008
No 844 511 50.1 30.1
Bedside feeding protocol includes head of bed elevation Yes 791 529 0.547 46.1 31.5 0.969
No 827 524 47.1 27.6
Dietician working in the ICU No dietician 658 524 0.027* 29.9 26.1 <.001^
<1 FTE 844 539 48.6 29.5
≥1 FTE 820 505 51.3 30.6
Timing of initiation of EN By day 1 512 431 <.001 # 31.3 23.6 <.001 #
Day 2–4 811 465 47.8 29.0
After day 4 1167 551 62.5 31.3
Nutritional support route EN only 734 468 0.023 + 44.4 28.2 <.001 +
PN only 624 215 26.7 25.6
EN + PN 602 524 31.6 30.3
Formula density (patients with >75 % of days at one density) ≤1 kcal/ml 728 453 0.011 π 41.9 27.7 0.006 π
>1– < 2 kcal/ml 816 540 48.7 30.6
≥2 kcal/ml 586 491 47.0 34.9
  1. *None significantly different from <1 full-time equivalent dietician (FTE). ^None significantly different from both <1 FTE and ≥1 FTE. #All groups significantly different to all others. +Enteral nutrition + parental nutrition (EN + PN) significantly different from EN only. π ≤ 1 kcal/ml’ significantly different from > 1– < 2 kcal/ml. Significant p-values denoted in bold text